The ancient Greeks and Roman civilizations both began their histories with the emergence of city states. Both of these civilizations made contributions to the Middle East. The Greeks had made a wild spread of discoveries on several fields. This included astronomy by Ptolemy, geometry by Euclid, and the philosophy of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius of his Stoic philosophy. Because the Greeks were widely known as a creative and prestigious race, the Romans were influenced by the Iliad (Homer’s legendary poem) that their religious beliefs were similar. Roman, on the other hand, influenced how other empires would be shaped in Middle East for centuries. Indeed, the Roman Empire formed a centralized state with a set of law, and a powerful leader on the top that was supported by military armies. Roman also contributes to the developments of law; for example, The Law of the Twelve Tables which created during the struggle of the orders (494~287 BC).
Although both of them were Mediterranean counties, their geographic locations were somehow different from each other. On one hand, the Greeks’ city states separate by hilly country sides, so their borders were somehow protected. On the other hand for the Romans, their locations were mostly inland and were surrounded by mountains, north Alps and east by Apennine. For some reason, most of civilizations located near water. Greeks and Romans shared this common characteristic. The Alexander’s empire expanded Greeks’ territory and has contact with the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, and Arabian Sea. Because of the inland location of Rome, the water systems they based on were rivers as well as seas, mainly the Tiber River and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Therefore, Rome was exposed to migrations and invasions.
Ancient Greece had no central authority at the time of the individual self-governed city states. As a result, wars and battles sometimes were fought among the city states. For example, the Peloponnesian War (431BC~...
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