What are the causes of deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas? How can the air quality in inner urban areas be improved through urban planning and transport development?
|Causes |4 | |Explain: |urban planning |4 | | |transport development |4 |
|Introduction |(4) | |Identify the causes of deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas - There are more air pollutants (e.g. carbon | | |oxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, suspended particulates, etc.) and more heat in inner urban areas. The causes of | | |deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas are as follows: | | |(a) High level of urbanisation | | |High energy consumption from automobiles, heating and cooling of homes and offices, and business activities | | |More industrial energy consumption | | |(b) High population and building density | | |More high rise buildings and narrow roads. So the air pollutants cannot be dispersed easily | | |Less open space and green areas | | |The air quality in inner urban areas can be improved through urban planning and transport development in several ways: |(4) | |(a) Urban planning | | |Urban renewal and urban redevelopment to reduce population density, building density and industrial activities | | |Increase open space and green areas | | |Development of new towns to relocate heavy polluted industries | | |More parks and green belts | | |(b) Transport development | | |Integrated planning for roads, highways and mass transit systems | | |Provide cheap and efficient transportation by improving highways and mass transit services | | |Conserve energy and reduce pollution by reducing automobile use | | |Develop public transport, such as bus and railway | | |Reduce automobile use in downtown areas | | |Modify the design of inner urban areas to require less automobile use. For example, setting up pedestrian zone | | |Conclusion | | | | | | |(4) | |Max: 12...
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