What are the causes of deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas? How can the air quality in inner urban areas be improved through urban planning and transport development?(12 marks)
|Causes |4 | |Explain: |urban planning |4 | | |transport development |4 |
|Introduction |(4) | |Identify the causes of deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas - There are more air pollutants (e.g. carbon | | |oxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, suspended particulates, etc.) and more heat in inner urban areas. The causes of | | |deterioration of air quality in inner urban areas are as follows: | | |(a) High level of urbanisation | | |High energy consumption from automobiles, heating and cooling of homes and offices, and business activities | | |More industrial energy consumption | | |(b) High population and building density | | |More high rise buildings and narrow roads. So the air pollutants cannot be dispersed easily | | |Less open space and green areas | | |The air quality in inner urban areas can be improved through urban planning and transport development in several ways: |(4) | |(a) Urban planning | | |Urban renewal and urban redevelopment to reduce population density, building density and industrial activities | | |Increase open space and green areas | | |Development of new towns to relocate heavy polluted industries | | |More parks and green belts | | |(b) Transport development | | |Integrated planning for roads, highways and mass transit systems | | |Provide cheap and efficient transportation by improving highways and mass transit services | | |Conserve energy and reduce pollution by reducing automobile use | | |Develop public transport, such as bus and railway | | |Reduce automobile use in downtown areas | | |Modify the design of inner urban areas to require less automobile use. For example, setting up pedestrian zone | | |Conclusion | | | | | | |(4) | |Max: 12...