The Cause and Effect of Smoking

Topics: Malaria, Mosquito, Intestine Pages: 11 (3193 words) Published: May 22, 2013
Class | Class: LOBOZEA (amoeba)Species:
ENTAMOEBA HISTOLITICA: * Only pathogenic parasite of this class * in large intestine * morphology: 1.trophozoite ; 2. Quadrinucleate cyst
- 15 micrometers (smaller than 10 is ‘non-pathogenic’), found in colon and feces, 4 nuclei * Life cycle: > parasite in caecum
> mature cyst is swallowed
> cyst hatches in intestine and quadrinucleated amoeba come out > divide into 8 trophozoites * Can occur in liver, lungs, brain and skin * Pathogenicity: leads to diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers * Diagnosis: 1. Stool examination for cysts, 2. Sigmoidoscopy,

3. Serological testSpecies:
entamoeba coli; entamoeba gingivalis; endolimax nana; iodamoeba butschiiClass: ZOOMASTIGOPHORIA (flagella)Species: TRYPANSOMA GAMBIENSE: - blood flagella- African sleeping disease- transmitted through tsetse flies > they take trypanosome infected blood >they become long form, multiply, migrate to salivary gland and change into short form (infective) > multiplies in vessels of man.- Pathogenecity: severe headaches, apathy, mental dullness.- Diagnosis: serological testSpecies: LEISHMANIA - Blood Flagella1. Visceral/ Donovani :- Transmission: female sand fly takes blood infected with amastigotes > they multiply and transform into promastigotes (infective) > migrate to mouth (not salivary glands) - Resivoir hosts: dogs/rodents/man- invades spleen, lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, etc- Pathogenecity:fever, spleno/hepato-megaly , anaemia, weight loss, diarrhea, dysentery, - Diagnosis: blood; splenic, bone marrow, liver, lymph node puncture2. Cutaneous/ Tropica:(Gardia Lamblia):- Found in duodenum/ jejunum- Diagnosis: trophozoites in diarrhoeic stool; cysts in formed stoolSpecies: TRICHOMONAS: - 5-30 micrometers- T. TENAX – mouthT.HOMINIS – intestineT. VAGINALIS – genitourinary tract- Pathogenicity:vegina pH lowered to pH 5-7 (normal pH 4-5); urethritis, prostatitis; itchiness * Diagnosis: examine discharge and urine| Class: SPORZOA (malaria)Species: Plasmodium Vivax; Plasmodium Falciparum; plasmodium malariae; plasmodium ovale * Hosts: i) Vertebrae/ intermediate host: man – where asexual cycle and schizgony occur ii) intervertebrate/ definitive host: sexual /extrinsic/sporogony cycle occur * Life Cycle: - exoerythrocytic schizgony(liver): mosquito bites man > sporozoite follows blood stream to liver (incubation period) and becomes trophozoites in liver cell> Feeds off of cell until it explodes and releases merozoites> invade RBC’s. - erythrocytic schizgony (blood): merozoite enters RBC and becomes trophozoites (feeds off RBC’s nutrients) > nucleus divides, forming a schizont containing merozoites> RBC bursts (malarial attack) releasing merozoites and pigment (degenerated haemoglobin) -[Clinical incubation period : from mosquito bite to RBC rupture] -Sporogony: female mosquito bites infected man > microgamete (M) enters macrogamete (F) to form zygote> penetrates stomach wall of mosquito to form oocyst> oocyst grows and ruptures releasing sporozoites> they travel to salivary gland * Diagnosis: blood exam, serological testSpecies: Taxoplasma Gondii: - primary hosts : cats * Life Cycle: oocyst forms 2 sporocysts > which each form 4 sporozoites. 8 in total > released in stool and enters another animals / man’s duodenum and enter circulation > invade cells and become trophozoites > | Class: LITOSTOMATEASpecies: BALANTIDIUM COLI * Reservoir hosts –pigs * Morphology: i) vegetative form (trophozoites): 60x45 micrometers, covered in cilia, 2 nuclei ii) cyst: 55 micrometers, contains single parasite * Life cycle: - trophozoites in large intestine > invades mucosa

-swallowing cysts infects man * Pathogenicity:
- ulcers
- diarrhoea, constipation, dysentery * Diagnosis: stool examination for cysts or trophozoites|

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