International development or global development is a concept that lacks a universally accepted definition, but it is most used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development – the development of livelihoods and greater quality of life for humans. It therefore encompasses foreign aid, governance, healthcare, education, gender equality, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, economics, human rights, environment and issues associated with these. International development is related to the concept of international aid, but is distinct from, though conceptually related to, disaster relief and humanitarian aid. While these two forms of international support seek to alleviate some of the problems associated with a lack of development, they are most often short term fixes - they are not necessarily long-term solutions. International development, on the other hand, seeks to implement long-term solutions to problems by helping developing countries create the necessary capacity needed to provide such sustainable solutions to their problems. A truly sustainable development project is one which will be able to carry on indefinitely with no further international involvement or support, whether it is financial or otherwise. |International development projects may consist of a single, transformative project to address a specific problem or a series of projects | |targeted at several aspects of society. |
Although international relations and international trade have existed for many hundreds of years it is only in the past century that international development theory emerged as a separate body of ideas. More specifically, it has been suggested that 'the theory and practice of development is inherently technocratic, and remains rooted in the high modernist period of political thought that existed in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War'. Post World War II
The second half of the 20th century has been called the 'era of development'. The origins of this era have been attributed to: • the need for reconstruction in the immediate aftermath of World War II;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_development - cite_note-5 • the evolution of colonialism or "colonization" into globalization and the establishment of new free trade policies between so-called 'developed' and 'underdeveloped' nations • The start of the Cold War and the desire of the United States and its allies to prevent the Third World from drifting towards communism. • It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20, 1949, when Harry S. Truman made these remarks in his inaugural address. | |We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the | | | |improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. The old imperialism - exploitation for foreign profit - has no place in our plans. | | | |What we envisage is a program of development based on the concept of democratic fair dealing. | | |—Harry S. Truman, 1949 |
Before this date, however, the United States had already taken a leading role in the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now part of the World Bank Group) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), both established in 1944, and in the United Nations in 1945. The launch of the Marshall Plan was another important step in the setting the agenda for international development, combining humanitarian goals with the creation of a political and economic bloc in Europe that was allied to the U.S. This agenda was given conceptual support during the 1950s in the form of modernization theory...