British: The use of violence for political ends includes the use of violence to put the public, or any part of society in fear ii.
EU Interior: The use or threatened use by a cohesive ministers group- a violence short of warfare (excludes states) iii.
US State Department: Any violence perpetrated for political reasons by sub-national groups or secret state agents, open directed at non-combatants to influence a target audience iv.
US Criminal Code: Any activity that involves criminal violence that appears to be intended to: 1.
Intimidate or coheres a civilian population
Influence a state government policy by intimidation or coheresion 3.
Affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping v.
US Department of Defense: Unlawful use or threatened use of violence against an individual or property to coheres or intimidate governments or societies: Often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives vi.
Yassar Arafat: The difference between the revolutionary and the terrorist is the reason why he fights and whoever stands by a just cause, cannot be a terrorist b.
Agreed properties of definitions
Political violence/threat to induce fear and political change ii.
Typically at civilians or against humanitarian norms
History of Terrorism
Zealots (40 BC-70AD): A Jewish religious group who believed Rome was holding back the Jewish religion, and only through an independent Jewish state can the religion advance. They attacked civilian rulers and Roman generals. ii.
Assassins (1090 AD- 1275AD) (Source of the word assassinate) A group of Shiite radicals who killed Sunni, Jewish, and Christian leaders iii.
Thugi (1300’s) (Source of the word thug) Worshipped the god Kahli, would stop pilgrims in groups of 1-5 and tried to get the to join their cause, if they didn’t, they were killed. b.
Terrorism (Source of the word)
First used in French Revolution
Government called itself the government of terror who tried killing everyone in the original government so that everyone else would leave, die, or fall in. c.
Important early terrorists
Argued that terrorism was propaganda by deed
Led a German revolution against German monarch, believed that failed because wasn’t violent enough- emphasized WMDs iii.
Anarchist who fled Germany to US, started a newspaper who believed violent means would defeat governments and free the masses a.
Wrote the anarchist’s cookbook
Inspired a Russian revolution, became a psychologist of terrorist and advocated training them by isolating them v.
The People’s Will
Inspired by Bakunin, anarchists group who tried killing Russian leaders, managed to kill Czar Alexander the II, they are all eliminated the next year 3.
Reasons for terrorism
Psychological: Believes that there is a specific type of terrorists psyche *However very few terrorist show history of mental illness 1.
Age: most terrorists are below the general age of population 3.
The violence is committed by younger guys but the actual planning is committed by older guys 4.
Gender: most terrorists are generally male
There are new anomalies where more women are committing terror, might have always been cultural 6.
Class: poorer people are more often terrorists
There are many cases where terrorists are middle class or rich 8.
Leader-follower relations: most of the leaders are very charismatic, strong willed, and firm in their beliefs 9.
Leads to other characteristics
Groups often splinter because of multiple leaders
Very similar to cults
Tends to be paranoid
Conspiracies seem to be self-fulfilling
Ex: Osama claiming the US is going to invade Islamic nations, when US retaliates for 9/11 they say their prophecy is coming true 5.
Groups targeted are typically more successful
Many groups isolate their...
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