BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teenage pregnancy is a common social problem in both Western and Eastern cultures. In United States, the statistics show that more than 3,000 teens get pregnant every day and the half them give births (McCoullough & Scherman(1991), cited in Yucel, 2003). Although teenage pregnancy may be considered as a positive experience, studies show that teenage pregnancy is associated with psychological, social and physical problems. The pregnancy rates reveal that the number of unintended pregnancy is very high. Some of the complications are that teenage mothers are more likely to expose postnatal depression, poor quality of life such as economic difficulties, unfinished education and poor housing (Mayson, 2011). The babies from the teen mothers are at high risk of mortality and low birth rate (Mayson, 2011). There are lots of researches about the pregnancy issue. At the end of the results of the studies, educators try to find a solution about the unintended pregnancy. Education programs that aim at informing teens about contraception, safety sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases are designed in most countries. However, Turkey is in a disadvantaged position because of the fact that there are very few studies that accepts the teen pregnancy as a growing problem. We also , as school counselors, mostly work with teenagers. School counselors should be educated about teenagers’ problems. Since teenage pregnancy is one of the problems teenagers face in adolescence, school counselors needs to give attention to this problem.
When addressing the issue of teenage pregnancy, it is mandatory that we also talk about youth culture. Teenagers have a different kind of culture. This culture affects the way teenagers become pregnant. When considering the topic teenage pregnancy, educational and health policies should be made in order to prevent the adverse effects of teenage pregnancy. LITERATURE REVIEW
In one of the research about the adolescent pregnancy investigates the risk factors which cause males to be involved in adolescent pregnancy. It is an important study since there are a few studies which examine male factors in teen pregnancy. The aim of the study was explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences of males and their involvement in teen pregnancy. The sample of this research was comprised of 45,000 adult members who annually undergo standardized examinations at Kaiser Permanente’s Health Appraisal Clinic in San Diego, California. They completed an Adverse Childhood Experience Study questionnaire. Childhood experience, in the study, includes verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, battered mother, household substance abuse, mental illness in household, parental separation and divorce and criminal household members. The results of the research revealed that there is an important relationship between male involvement in teen pregnancy and their adverse childhood experiences. In this respect, it can be concluded that the rate of teenage pregnancy can be mediated by preventing childhood experiences (Anda, Chapman, Felitti, Edwards, Williamson, Croft and Giles, 2002).
Another study related with this issue investigates the impact of adverse childhood experiences of females on adolescent pregnancy. It also explores long term psychosocial consequences and. The participants were 9159 women older from who attended a primary care clinic in San Diego, California in 1995–1997. The adverse childhood experience was scored by Adverse Childhood Experience Study questionnaire which investigates verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, battered mother, household substance abuse, mental illness in household, parental separation and divorce and criminal household members. In the study, it was found that there is a strong relationship between adverse childhood experiences and teen pregnancy. In addition, the association between adverse childhood experiences and the risk for fetal death...
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