Synthesis of 1- Bromobutane an Sn2 Reaction

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Experiment 13:
Synthesis of 1- Bromobutane An SN2 Reaction

Theory: One of the methods of preparing alkyl halides is via the nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols. Alcohols are inexpensive materials and easy to maintain. However, they are a poor leaving group the OH group is a problem in nucleophilic substitution, this problem is fixed by converting the alcohol into H2O. Objective: The objective of this lab is to observe the synthesis of 1-bromobutane in an SN2 reaction, to see how a primary alky halide reacts with an alcohol. Reagents:

Reagents | Physical properties |
Sodium bromide | Molecular formula: NaBrMolar mass: 102.894 g/molAppearance: White powderDensity: 3.21 g/cm3 (anhydrous)2.18 g/cm3 (dihydrate)Melting point747 °C (anhydrous)36 °C (dihydrate)Boiling point1396 °CSolubility in water: 90.5 g/100 mL (20 °C) 121.0 g/100 mL (100 °C)Solubility in methanol16.7 g/100mL| 1-butanol| Molecular formula:C4H10OMolar mass:74.12 g mol−1Appearance: Colourless liquidDensity: 0.81 g cm-3Melting point: −90 °C, 183 K, -130 °FBoiling point: 118 °C, 391 K, 244 °FSolubility in water73 g L-1 at 25°C| NaOH| Molecular formula: NaOHMolar mass: 39.9971 g mol-1Appearance: White, waxy, opaque crystalsOdor odorlessDensity: 2.13 g/cm3Melting point: 318 °C, 591 K, 604 °FBoiling point: 1388 °C, 1661 K, 2530 °FSolubility in water111 g/100 mL (at 20 °C)Solubility in methanol23.8 g/100 mLSolubility in ethanol<<13.9 g/100 mL| Saturated NaCl| Molecular formula: NaClMolar mass: 58.44 g mol−1Appearance: Colorless crystalsOdor OdorlessDensity: 2.165 g cm−3Melting point: 801 °C, 1074 K, 1474 °FBoiling point: 1413 °C, 1686 K, 2575 °FSolubility in water: 359 g L−1Solubility in ammonia: 21.5 g L−1Solubility in methanol: 14.9 g L−1| Anhydrous Na2SO4| Molecular formula: Na2SO4Molar mass: 142.04 g/mol (anhydrous)322.20 g/mol (decahydrate)Appearance: white crystalline solidHygroscopic Odor: odorlessDensity: 2.664 g/cm3 (anhydrous)1.464 g/cm3...
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