Business Heritage, Culture and Sustainability
A bottle of milk purchased in Christchurch is very like to be produced in the South island, either in Canterbury or Southland, which are the main dairying areas. The production process for milk:
From the farm: milk is produced from grass, dairy cow’s graze on the grass and then they are milked twice a day using mechanical vacuum milking machines. The raw milk flows through stainless steel pipes to a refrigerated bulk milk tank. The milk is collected by road tanker every one to two days and taken to a milk processing plant. The Separator: at the processing plant the first step is separation where the raw milk is passed through a separator, which spins 100 times per second to separate the milk from cream. Standardisation: this is where cream is added back into the milk as some cows do not always produce the same amount of cream in their milk, also milk changes depending on the time of year. Homogenisation: is the process where the milk is heated and pushed through a very small opening to stop the cream rising from the top this evens out the fat so it all tastes the same. Pasteurisation: heats up the milk to almost boiling point to kill any bacteria and then the milk is cooled very fast. Packaging: The final stage of production is the pumped in to cartons of plastic bottles and then sealed. (Fonterra, n.d, milking it section, para. 2) The production of milk at a processing plant does not create many major issues relating to sustainable resources use and conservation. The key issues associated with the production of a bottle of milk are created at the start of production on dairy farms. Farmers engage in practices to enable the production of milk. Cows can eat up to 70kg of grass per day (Fonterra, n.d, grazing section, para.1) which means a lot of land is needed for farming and chemical fertiliser is used on the soil to boost the growth of...