Summer Olympic Games

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bThe Ancient Olympic Games

When were the first Olympic Games?
The first known Olympic Games was recorded in around 776 BC in Olympia, Greece. They were celebrated until 396 AD.

What events took place in the Ancient Olympic Games?
The Ancient Olympic Games consisted of only one race, the "stade" race, which was the length of the stadium and between 180 and 240 metres long (we don't know for sure). Over the years more running races and other events were added, including boxing, wrestling, chariot racing, long jump, javelin and discus throwing.

Who took part in the Ancient Olympic Games?
Only young men could take part. They had to be free men, and speak Greek. They usually competed nude, and the prize was a crown of olive leaves (a sign of hope and peace).

Make an Olive leaf crown

Were women allowed at the Ancient Olympic Games?
Women were not allowed to take part. Married women were not even allowed to watch!

Now try to fill in this worksheet? What can you remember?
Ancient Olympic Games worksheet

The Modern Olympic Games

Who revived the idea of the Olympic Games?
A French nobleman, Pierre Fredy, the Baron de Coubertin, born in 1863. When he was young, Coubertin was a very keen sportsman. As he grew older he developed a passionate belief that sport could encourage peace throughout the world and bring people from all over the world together.

Coubertin was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and travelled around the world, spending his own money, trying to persuade people to revive them. Eventually he managed to bring together representatives of many different countries in Paris, in 1894, and the Olympic Movement was begun.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin - notebooking pages

When and where were the first modern Olympic Games held?
The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896.

Did women compete in this first modern Olympic Games?
No! Women began to compete in 1900. For many years there were problems for the women athletes about what to wear, because it was considered very rude to show any part of the body or even the shape of the body! Can you imagine trying to run and jump covered from head to foot in clothes?

Who supervises the Olympic Games?
When Baron de Coubertin founded the Olympic Movement he established the International Olympic Committee (the IOC) to supervise it, in 1894. He himself served as its president for 29 years, and there have been 8 presidents since then. There were originally 14 members but the Committee has now grown to over 130 members, all of whom must speak either French or English. Existing members elect new members as required. The IOC is based in Lausanne, Switzerland.

What is the aim of the Olympic Movement?
"The goal of the Olympic Movement is to contribute to building a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport practiced without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play."

What is an Olympiad?
An Olympiad is the period of four years which starts with a summer Olympic Games. Each Olympiad is counted with Roman numerals, and the year of the Games cannot be changed (although Games have been skipped out, as in 1916 during the First World War).

Who chooses the next host for the Olympic Games, and how?
Members of the IOC choose the next venue for the Olympic Games, which must be a city rather than a country. So, for example, the next Olympics, in 2016, will be hosted by Rio de Janeiro, rather than Brazil. Any city which wishes to host the Games can put their bid to the IOC. Only one city from each country can bid, and even putting forward a bid takes a huge amount of work and is very expensive. It usually takes many years to prepare, and of course only one city can be successful!

Who selects each country's team of athletes?
Each country has their own National Olympic Committee (NOC). The NOCs represent...
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