Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. In American, elected officials and leaders are held accountable to followers to greater degree than in countries that have experienced of aristocratic, and granting followers the right not only to observe their leaders but also to describe their behavior as it is perceived is not regarded as a threat to the status or authority of leaders. These made leadership became an American creation. American theory and research in leadership was developing in this context.
Practical demands arising from two world wars stimulated new trends and the development of new methodologies. In fact, World Wars I and II mark the boundaries among three major stages in the study of leadership.
Definitions of leadership
Leadership in the earliest definitions was regarded as a focusing of group processes, and is conceived as a resultant of group processes and member interactions. Some scholars ease the task of the leader by establishing a theoretical base for his or her exercise of authority and cotrol.
More recent definitions regard leadership as an aspect of role differentiation in a group; that is leadership is viewed as the act of initiating and maintaining role structure, and seek to provide a basis for explaining the origin and maintenance of leadership in newly created, as well as in long established groups.
Type of leadership
Early theorists sought to identify the various types of leaders that are to be found in a society. Six types of leaders were observed: authoritative leader, democratic leader, persuasive leader, representative leader, executive leader and intellectual leader.
These different types of leaders and the basis for leadership positions are discussed more thoroughly in a few broad theoretical frameworks.
Various theories of leadership
While many different leadership theories have emerged, various attempts have... [continues]
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