Summarry scent of apples

Division of labour , Technology , Construction

  • Course: literature
Job Method
With Job production, the complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology. Low technology jobs: here the organization of production is extremely simply, with the required skills and equipment easily obtainable. This method enables customer's specific requirements to be included, often as the job progresses. Examples include: hairdressers; tailoring High technology jobs: high technology jobs involve much greater complexity - and therefore present greater management challenge. The important ingredient in high-technology job production isproject management, or project control. The essential features of good project control for a job are: - Clear definitions of objectives- how should the job progress (milestones, dates, stages) - Decision-making process - how are decisions taking about the needs of each process in the job, labour and other resources Examples of high technology / complex jobs: film production; large construction projects (e.g. the Millennium Dome) Batch Method

As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is not unusual to see the production process organised so that "Batch methods" can be used. Batch methods require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Each operation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By using the batch method, it is possible to achieve specialisation of labour. Capital expenditure can also be kept lower although careful planning is required to ensure that production equipment is not idle. The main aims of the batch method are, therefore, to: - Concentrate skills (specialisation)

- Achieve high equipment utilisation
This technique is probably the most commonly used method for organising manufacture. A good example is the production of electronic instruments. Batch methods are not without their problems. There is a high probability of poor work flow,...
Job Method
With Job production, the complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs
can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology.
Low technology jobs: here the organization of production is extremely simply, with the required
skills and equipment easily obtainable. This method enables customer's specific requirements to be
included, often as the job progresses. Examples include: hairdressers; tailoring
High technology jobs: high technology jobs involve much greater complexity - and therefore
present greater management challenge. The important ingredient in high-technology job production
isproject management, or project control. The essential features of good project control for a job
are:
- Clear definitions of objectives- how should the job progress (milestones, dates, stages)
- Decision-making process - how are decisions taking about the needs of each process in the job,
labour and other resources
Examples of high technology / complex jobs: film production; large construction projects (e.g. the
Millennium Dome)
Batch Method
As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is not unusual to see the production
process organised so that "Batch methods" can be used.
Batch methods require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Each operation
is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By using the batch
method, it is possible to achieve specialisation of labour. Capital expenditure can also be kept lower
although careful planning is required to ensure that production equipment is not idle. The main aims
of the batch method are, therefore, to:
- Concentrate skills (specialisation)
- Achieve high equipment utilisation
This technique is probably the most commonly used method for organising manufacture. A good
example is the production of electronic instruments.
Batch methods are not without their problems. There is a high probability of poor work flow,
particularly if the batches are not of the optimal size or if there is a significant difference in
productivity by each operation in the process. Batch methods often result in the build up of
significant "work in progress" or stocks (i.e. completed batches waiting for their turn to be worked on
in the next operation).
Flow Methods
Flow methods are similar to batch methods - except that the problem of rest/idle production/batch
queuing is eliminated.
Flow has been defined as a "method of production organisation where the task is worked on
continuously or where the processing of material is continuous and progressive,"
The aims of flow methods are:
-Improved work & material flow
-Reduced need for labour skills
- Added value / completed work faster
Flow methods mean that as work on a task at a particular stage is complete, it must be passed
directly to the next stage for processing without waiting for the remaining tasks in the "batch". When
it arrives at the next stage, work must start immediately on the next process. In order for the flow to
be smooth, the times that each task requires on each stage must be of equal length and there
should be no movement off the flow production line. In theory, therefore, any fault or error at a
particular stage
In order that flow methods can work well, several requirements must be met:
(1) There must be substantially constant demand
tracking img