We are brought up to follow the beliefs, values, and customs of our society and to avoid behavior that is judged “unacceptable” or considered to be taboo. In addition to segmenting in terms of cultural factors, marketers also segment overall societies into smaller subgroups or subcultures that consist of people who are similar in terms of their ethnic origin, their customs, and the ways they behave. These subcultures provide important marketing opportunities for astute marketing strategists.
So, now our discussion in this chapter on subcultures will be more focused compared to the other chapters. Instead of examining the dominant beliefs, values, and customs that exist within an entire society, we will explore the marketing opportunities created by the existence of certain beliefs, values, and customs shared by members of specific sub cultural groups within a society.
These sub cultural divisions are based on a variety of socio-cultural and demographic variables such as nationality, religion, geographic locality, race, age, sex, and even working status.
After studying this chapter we should be able:
Understand the concept of subcultures;
Identify the various types of subcultures and measure their impact on consumer behavior.
Culture can be divided into subcultures:
The term subculture refers to a category of people who share a sense of identification that is distinguishable from that of the total culture.
A sub-culture is an identifiable distinct, cultural group, which, while following the dominant cultural values of the overall society also has its own belief, values and customs that set them apart from other members of the same society.
Sub-culture categories are:
• Nationality: Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani;
• Religion: Hinduism, Islam;
• Race: Asian, black, white;
• Age: Generation X Market, Generation Y Market, Seniors, Baby Boomers Market; • Sex: Male, Female;
• Occupation: Farmer, teacher, business;
• Social class: upper, middle, lower;
• Geographic regions: South India, North-eastern India.
Let us now look at some of these aspects of subculture in greater details. 1. Regional, Ethnic, and Religious Influences on Consumer Behavior oRegional Influences
A. Regions within the country,
B. Regions across the World.
A. Ethnic Groups within the Country,
B. Multicultural Marketing,
C. Ethnic Groups around the World.
The three major aspects of culture that have important effects on consumer behavior are regional, ethnic, and religious differences. Firstly, consumption patterns may differ in various regions of Bangladesh and the world, and marketing strategy can sometimes be tailored specifically to these regions. Secondly, our country has a number of different ethnic groups, and population trends will dramatically alter the demographic profile of the country in the next 50 years. Ethnicity Ethnic origin refers to the genetic heritage group a person is born in-
oMarketplace behavior and marketer response;
oVary mainstream marketing for ethnic markets;
oPay attention to customs;
oUse of multicultural models in advertising.
This diverse population is described in terms of its distinct identity and language, strong family and religious orientation, solid work ethic, and youthfulness. The broad characteristics can influence consumption (e.g., brand loyalty and the desire for prestige products) and have important implications for product development, advertising, media targeting, promotions, and distribution.
Say for instance, in the United States, the African American population is described as urban, young, social, and religious. Black consumers value prestigious brands and are smart investigative shoppers. These patterns lead to important marketing...