Date of Birth | :| Jan 23, 1897 |
Date of Death| :| Aug 18, 1945|
Place of Birth| :| Orissa|
| Freedom Fighters|
Subhashh Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj. Subhash Chandra Bose was born to an affluent family in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a public prosecutor who believed in orthodox nationalism, and later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council. His mother was Prabhavati Bose, a remarkable example of Indian womanhood. Bose was educated at Cambridge University. In 1920, Bose took the Indian Civil Service entrance examination and was placed second. However, he resigned from the prestigious Indian Civil Service in April 1921 despite his high ranking in the merit list, and went on to become an active member of India's independence movement. He joined the Indian National Congress, and was particularly active in its youth wing. Subhash Chandra Bose felt that young militant groups could be molded into a military arm of the freedom movement and used to further the cause. Gandhiji opposed this ideology because it directly conflicted with his policy of ahimsa (non-violence). The British Government in India perceived Subhash as a potential source of danger and had him arrested without any charge on October 25, 1924. He was sent to Alipore Jail, Calcutta and in January 25, 1925 transferred to Mandalay, Burma. He was released from Mandalay in May, 1927 due to his ill health. Upon return to Calcutta, Subhash was elected President of the Bengal Congress Committee on October 27, 1927. | Subhash was one of the few politicians who sought and worked towards Hindu-Muslim unity on the basis of respect of each community's rights. Subhash, being a man of ideals, believed in independence from the social evil of religious discord. In January 1930 Subhash was arrested while leading a procession condemning imprisonment of revolutionaries. He was offered bail on condition that he signs a bond to refrain from all political activities, which he refused. As a result he was sentenced to a year's imprisonment. On his release from jail, Subhash was sworn in as Mayor of the Calcutta Corporation. In 1931 the split between Gandhiji and Subhash crystallized. Although the two never saw eye to eye on their view of freedom and the movement itself, Subhash felt that Gandhiji had done a great disservice to the movement by agreeing to take part in the Second Round Table Conference. Subhash viewed freedom as an absolute necessity, unlike the freedom which Gandhiji was "negotiating" with the British. Subhash was arrested again while returning from Bombay to Calcutta, and imprisoned in several jails outside West Bengal in fear of an uprising. His health once again deteriorated and the medical facilities diagnosed him with tuberculosis. It was recommended that he be sent to Switzerland for treatment. Realizing that his avenues abroad were greater with the restrictions of the British, Subhash set sail for Europe on February 23, 1933. Subhash stayed in various parts of Europe from March 1933 to March 1936 making contacts with Indian revolutionaries and European socialists supporting India's Struggle for Independence. Subhash met Mussolini in Italy and made Vienna his headquarters. Subhash was opposed to the racial theory of Nazism but appreciated its organizational strength and discipline. On March 27, 1936 he sailed for Bombay and but was escorted to jail immediately after disembarking. After lying low for a year, he was able to work actively. He attended the All India Congress Committee Session in Calcutta, the first one he attended after a lapse of nearly six years. Time had healed the tensions between Subhash and Gandhiji, and Gandhiji supported Subhash in his efforts to become the President of the next Congress session, 1938. He went to...