Study on Transgenerationa Transmission on Parenting

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PARENTING STYLES AND VALUES: MECHANISMS OF INTERGENERATIONAL CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Western Carolina University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in School Psychology.

By

Melissa Florence Littlewood

Director: Dr. Bruce Henderson Professor of Psychology Psychology Department

Committee Members: Dr. Lydia Aydlett, Psychology Dr. Marie Huff, Social Work

March 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables………………………………………………………………….. List of Figures…………………………………………………………………. Abstract……………………………………………………………………….. Introduction…………………………………………………………………… Literature Review……………………………………………………………… Parenting Research…………………………………………………….. Baumrind’s parenting prototypes……………………………… Parenting trends in the 20th Century…………………………… Intergenerational Research…………………………………………….. Intergenerational transmission versus intergenerational continuity……………………………………………………… Child abuse and harsh punishment…………………………….. Mechanisms of Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity………. Infant temperament…………………………………………….. Parent-infant attachment……………………………………….. Social support and marital quality…………………………….... Changing views of society……………………………………… Other variables………………………………………………….. Purpose of the Present Study…………………………………………… Method…………………………………………………………………………. Participants……………………………………………………………… Measures………………………………………………………………… Background questionnaire………………………………………. Warmth and control……………………………………………… Values………………………………………………………….... Design and Procedure……………………………………………………. Individualism……………………………………………………. Warmth and control……………………………………………… Background questionnaire………………………………………... Results……………………………………………………………………………. Intergenerational Continuity of Individualism…………………………… Intergenerational Continuity of Parental Care……………………………. Intergenerational Continuity of Parental Overprotection………………… Individualism and Parenting Practices……………………………………. Intergenerational Continuity of Family Practices………………………… Discussion………………………………………………………………………… Discontinuity of Individualism…………………………………………… Discontinuity of Parental Warmth………………………………………… Continuity of Parental Control……………………………………………. Individualism and Parenting Styles………………………………………..

Page 4 5 6 8 10 10 10 15 20 21 22 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 34 34 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 42 42 42 44 45 45 45 46 47

Family Practices…………………………………………………………… 48 Limitations………………………………………………………………… 48 Conclusions………………………………………………………………... 50 References…………………………………………………………………………. 51 Appendices………………………………………………………………………… 57 Appendix A………………………………………………………………... 58 Appendix B………………………………………………………………… 59 Appendix C………………………………………………………………… 60 Appendix D………………………………………………………………… 61

4 LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Frequencies of Highest Education Completed and Marital Status………. 2. Descriptive Statistics of Individualism and Perceived Parental Care for Each Generation………………………………………………………….. 3. Correlations for Individualism, Warmth, and Control……………………

Page 36 41 43

5

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Baumrind’s parenting prototypes as part of the continuum of warmth and control……………………………………………………………… 2. Results for the three generations in Bengston’s (1975) study…………. 3. Mechanisms of continuity and discontinuity: variables which influence parent-child interactions and variables which interact with each other… 4. Hypothesized path of control and warmth for each generation…………

Page 14 17 26 32

6 ABSTRACT

PARENTING STYLES AND VALUES: MECHANISMS OF INTERGENERATIONAL CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY Melissa Florence Littlewood, M.A. Western Carolina University (March 2009) Director: Dr. Bruce Henderson

Do parenting styles continue from generation to generation? It is counter-intuitive to think that parenting styles do not continue from generation to generation, yet many researchers have found this to be true (Campbell & Gilmore, 2007; Covell, Grusec, & King,...
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