Study Guide

Topics: Archaeology, Geologic time scale, Culture Pages: 6 (1319 words) Published: February 11, 2013
Study guide

Anthropology: The study of Human kind and Human culture

Archaeology: study of ancient cultures through remains: the scientific study of ancient cultures through the examination of their material remains such as buildings, graves, tools, and other artifacts usually dug up from the ground ; to recover information that will increase our understanding of the past 4 main goals:

1. Describe the form of archaeological evidence and its distribution in time and space 2. Determine function of past remains and reconstruct past behavior 3. Define the process of culture to determine how and why culture’s change over time 4. To use archaeological record to understand the meaning of culture in the past and its relevance to the present

Prehistory: Everything before 4,400 B.C. History before written word

History: Past events of a period in time of a people or a place

Big white man theory: Mounds. Theory that big white men built these mounds

Paleoindians: 11,500 years ago. First Indians to cross into the united states during glacial episodes big game hunters

Antiquarianism: Early archaeology, very wealthy, traveled in groups looking for whatever interested them

* The branch of geology concerned with the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale. * Principle of original horizontality
* The reason layers of earth go horizontal because of gravity * Principle of superposition
* The youngest layer is on top, oldest on bottom
* Principle of crosscutting relationships
- If you see something cutting into it, it happened after the layer got there * Principle of faunal succession
* The fossils in each layer change/ evolve not just Earth time but the time frame of species

Geology: the science that deals with the dynamics and physical history of the earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the physical, chemical, and biological changes that the earth has undergone or is undergoing. Paleontology: the science of the forms of life existing in former geologic periods, as represented by their fossils. Looting: The Stealing or destruction of ancient artifacts,for personal or financial gain. Looters destroy archaeological sites in hopes of finding something with value thus destroying an archaeologist’s chance at discovering artifacts that could tell us about our past. Migration Theories:?????

Catastrophism: When people thought that each one of the earth’s layer represented a different catastrophe that happened in our past thus creating the thought that earth was only 4,004 B.C idea that gradual geologic change is interrupted by catastrophes. Uniformitarianism: A layer is a layer. We might find more but you can’t put a cap on the actual date of the earth. Let the data speak for itself. Thought earth to be 15,000 B.C. the idea that the same geologic processes that happens in our Earth today has been at work during all of Earth's history. Cabinets of Curiosity: Said to be the earliest forms of a museum. Antiquarians would use theses cabins to store and display their findings from their travels. Used as a status symbol for wealth and social prosperity. Pseudoarchaeology: essentially fake archaeology in the way that these so called scientists take a fact and make it into fiction by creating a great story. Such as tombs being built by aliens or the lost world of Atlantis. Leads people into believing things about our past that are untrue. Offer astonishing explanations for dramatic mysteries. State Historic Preservation Office:????

Midden: Basically a trash heap. A specialized area for rubbish disposal away from other activity areas. If used over a long period of time middens may become layered, thus giving archaeologists a chance to look at ancient disposal, such as what they were eating, or what tools they would use Contributions to Archaeology…

* Archbishop John Ussher
* Tried to answer bigger...
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