There are five main philosophical schools of thought in education which are essentialism, perennialism, progressivism, existentialism and reconstructionism. However, here I have only chosen the philosophies which believe in student-centred approach. There are three philosophies that hold the similarity of being less authoritarian and placing the students as the centre in learning process. These three philosophies reject essentialism and do not agree with traditional mediums of teaching. They are recontructionism, progressivism, and existentialism 1.2 Reconstructionism
Reconstructionism is an important contribution of Theodore Brameld in the world of educational philosophy. Brameld in his book, ‘Education as Power’, says “education has two major roles: to transmit culture and to modify culture." In reconstructionism, education is seen as a way to bring out positive changes in society. The educational purpose of reconstructionism is to create social reform in which education serves as a mean to make people view society with a critical eye. Learners should never settle for what is but have to do critical thinking and dream of what should be. This branch of philosophy strives for a constant and positive change for the betterment of the society. A famous reconstructivionist, Paulo Freire (1921-1997) sees teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.
Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) and Paulo Freire (1921-1997) . Source: Google Image. The goal of reconstructionist learning is that the students themselves should conceive the good future. The students receive education as a preparation for their role in the future. Therefore, it is important for students to experience and taking social action on actual problems. Students should be willing to spend time in the community to learn its problems. Rote learning, memorization and direct-method are not preferable in...