Throughout this assignment I will discuss Structural Adjustment programmes (SAPs) in different economic regions of the world. I will be looking at Tanzania, which is part of the SADC, To truly understand this, one must first understand what SAPs are. “Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. Structural adjustment loans are loans made by the World Bank. They are designed to encourage the structural adjustment of an economy by, for example, removing “excess” government controls and promoting market competition as part of the neo-liberal agenda followed by the Bank.” (World health organisation , 2013) Tanzania
Economic region: SADC
History that lead to Structural Adjustment Programme
During the 1960's and '70's, Tanzania implemented policies of self-reliance. These included nationalization and price controls. They experienced growth in a short period of time, but a long-run economic downturn. “By the 1980's Tanzania was the world's second poorest country in GDP per capita terms.” (Tanzania, 1996)At that time, Tanzania’s natural resource base became threatened. This signalled a movement towards more market-oriented policies and a change of political leadership. During the 1970's, Tanzania attempted to ensure food and crop export production by large-scale production-oriented agricultural parastatals. This strategy disrupted traditional resource uses and accelerated environmental degradation.
Tanzania’s National Environmental Management Council pursued strategies of conservation in the 1980's and later modified them to sustainable development in 1992. Some of the problems that existed in this area were that legislation was geared toward control, rather than proper incentive structures, enforcement was poor because staffing was...
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