Problem and Study Purpose
The research purpose is to identify why nursing students have experienced higher level of stress and more physical and psychological symptoms. According to Jimenez, Navio-Osorio, & Diaz, (2010) it stated that most research on student nurses stress takes place within the United Kingdom and North America. More research needs to be conducted in other countries. This is why the researchers are conducting the study on the Spanish academia. It shows that there is little empirical evidence about the stress experienced on the nursing students during clinical practice.
The researchers are trying to establish the logic behind stressful events in clinical practice for nursing students. What types of stressful events and degrees of stress have been perceived by students during periods of clinical practice? What are the common biopsychosocial responses during period of clinical practice? What are the difference in reports of stress and health between novice and experienced groups of nursing students? The researchers suggest that if stress from clinical practice is an international phenomenon, it would then be useful to help identify the stressors. Given that the readers have an understanding that student nurses have high stress levels in the UK and North America, the readers can now sense the importance of research in the Spanish academia to help identify the stressors.
The independent variable in this study is the experience level (novice-experienced) throughout the nursing program (year) and the dependent variables are the student’s scores measuring stress and health. (Jimenez, Navio-Osorio, & Diaz, 2010). With these set of variables, the researchers can determine if the stressors are equal in different stages of nursing experience.
This research used theoretical framework model. The researchers are identifying stress appraisal and adaptational outcomes (biopsyschosocial) by using Pollock’s Adaptation Nursing Model (1984). The theoretical framework model will help the researchers determine how nursing students deal with perceived stress and indentify clinical stressors, academic stressors and external stressors. Also, this model looks to find out how the students deal and adapt to stress.
Researchers’ main focus is how stress from clinical practice and whether it is an international culture phenomena. It stated that nursing students are under significant stress during clinical practice periods, putting their education and health at risk. (Jimenez, Navio-Osorio, & Diaz, 2010). According to the literature reviewed, Stress and health in novice and experienced nursing students (2010) stated that the 3 major sources of stress are academic stressors (assignments and workload, exams, grades), clinical stressors (patient suffering or death, lack of professional knowledge and skills), external stressors (interference with daily life and financial). Having identified these stressors in previous research, this study looks to answer other questions that remain. Obviously, this area in research has been highly studied but the data seems to be inconclusive.
A descriptive quantitative and cross-sectional design was used. Cross-sectional was used because the data was collected over an 8-month period in 2004-2005. The researchers did not explain why they decided to do the year of 2004-2005 and between what month it was collected. In this study, the experience level was an independent variable therefore the cross-sectional design was needed.
Two threats to the internal validity were history and mortality. Since nursing programs change, the data can become inconclusive when trying to determine nursing students stress levels. Also, students who report to have high stress levels in beginning years of nursing, can be the same students who drop out of program...
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