The value premium that a company realizes from a product with a recognizable name as compared to its generic equivalent. Companies can create brand equity for their products by making them memorable, easily recognizable and superior in quality and reliability. Mass marketing campaigns can also help to create brand equity. If consumers are willing to pay more for a generic product than for a branded one, however, the brand is said to have negative brand equity. This might happen if a company had a major product recall or caused a widely publicized environmental disaster. Brand Equity is the value and strength of the Brand that decides its worth. It can also be defined as the differential impact of brand knowledge on consumers response to the Brand Marketing. Brand Equity exists as a function of consumer choice in the market place. The concept of Brand Equity comes into existence when consumer makes a choice of a product or a service. It occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favourable positive strong and distinctive brand associations in the memory. Brand Equity can be determined by measuring:
| * Returns to the Share-Holders.| |
| * Evaluating the Brand Image for various parameters that are considered significant.| | | * Evaluating the Brand’s earning potential in long run.| | | * By evaluating the increased volume of sales created by the brand compared to other brands in the same class.| | | * The price premium charged by the brand over non-branded products.| | | * From the prices of the shares that an organization commands in the market (specifically if the brand name is identical to the corporate name or the consumers can easily co-relate the performance of all the individual brands of the organization with the organizational financial performance.| | | * OR, An amalgamation of all the above methods.| |
Q1 .Defining the Category
Market for product is big and diverse making it difficult for companies to be able to satisfy every customer. Companies need to identify a certain set of customer within a market and work towards satisfying them. This set of identification is market segment. Companies further need to understand the intricacy of how this segment behaves and operates. An approach known as target marketing is gaining prominence where companies identify the market segment on similar needs and wants, select one of the market segments and then focus in developing products and marketing program.Earlier business operation was in the form of mass marketing. In mass marketing companies produce a product in large quantities and serve this product to as many consumers as possible. This made sense as markets were developing and not much variety was on offering. Now product offerings have under gone radical change thanks to advertising and communication reach. Therefore, companies look forward to marketing at segment, niches, local and individual level.| In segment marketing companies identify consumer with similar needs and wants. For example, an airline is looking forward to providing no frills’ connectivity between metro cities on US east coast compare. This segment is within airline industry but needs of customer is different. T target audience is low budget travelers. However, customers within the segment look for different attributes, for example, lunch or beverages as part of travel. Here companies can offer this by charging the customer. In niche marketing, companies target limited customer set. A niche market is worth exploring where customers are willing to pay a premium for product, entry barriers are high and market has growth potential. In local marketing, customers are local neighborhood, trading stores, etc. For example, many banks...