STATE AUDITING IN THE PHILIPPINES
MYRLA P. SEDENIO
RUTH C. TACUJAN
I. To Discuss the State Audit System
2. To Identify Issues and Limitations of Government Auditing 3. To Discuss the Measurement of Government Performance
The Philippine Constitution emphasizes the importance of accountability in the government. Article XI simply and bluntly begins: “Public office is a public trust,” before it adds that officials and employees should serve the people with “responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency.” In the government budget cycle, accountability is laid down by the need for government agencies and departments submit to submit quarterly and monthly income statements; statements of allotment, obligations and balances along with other financial reports and documents for audit - a formal process whereby the authenticity, accuracy and reliability of financial accounts or transactions are checked and approved. There are several kinds of audit: One is Financial Auditing wherein financial transactions and accounts are checked to ensure the submitting government agency has complied with the rules and regulations, specifically the pre-agreed and government accounting system. Another type is Performance Auditing whereby one is looking at the systems of the agency to assess it has delivered on its institutional purpose and mandate by linking the budgets with results or results-based budgets. An internal audit, as the name suggests, an internal check on agency systems and processes. External Auditing involves an outside audit body being brought in to look at the agency. Pre-auditing refers to auditing by agencies before approval of transactions while post-auditing is auditing by an independent body after. The Philippine government has agencies mandated to ensure accountability and transparency on its overall operations. These agencies are: The Office of the Ombudsman, Sandiganbayan, Presidential Anti-Graft Commission, the Civil Service Commission and primarily, for the purpose of this paper, the Commission on Audit.
C. STATE AUDIT SYSTEM
Auditing is the examination of information by a third party other than the preparer or user with the intention of establishing its realibility, and the reporting of the results of this examination with the expectation of increasing the usefulness of the information to the user. Commission on Audit
The Commission on Audit (COA) is the constitutional commission mandated to be the supreme audit institution of the government. It has jurisdiction over national government agencies, local government units, government-owned and controlled corporations and non-government organizations receiving benefits and subsidies from the government. The Constitution identified the following functions for the Commission: 1.
Examine, audit and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the government; 2.
Promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties; 3.
Submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on the financial condition and operation of the government; 4.
Recommend measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations; 5.
Keep the general accounts of government and preserve the vouchers and supporting papers pertaining thereto; 6.
Decide any case brought before it within 60 days;
Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. COA, as the other constitutional commissions are mandated, is headed by a Chairman and two Commissioners appointed by the President and the Commission on Appointments of Congress. It also enjoys fiscal autonomy...
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