Standardization of NaOH and determination of Molarity of an unknown Acid

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Experiment 5- Standardization of NaOH and determination of Molarity of an unknown Acid

Objectives
1. Preparation and standardization of a 0.1M NaOH solution 2. To learn the technique of titration
3. Determination of the concentration of an unknown diprotic acid.

Introduction
Titration can be traced to the origins of volumetric analysis, which began in the late eighteenth century.  Study of analytical chemistry began in France and the first burette was made by Francois Antoine Henri Descroizilles. The field began to spread to neighboring countries and eventually to the whole world. Titration can be defined as the gradual addition of one solution to another until the chemical amount of one reactant being added matches stoichiometrically the amount of another reactant in the solution initially present. Learning the right technique of Titration is essential because of its wide applications in all areas of science, it is used in laboratory medicine to determine unknown concentrations of chemicals of interest in blood and urine. Pharmacists also use titration in the development of new pharmaceuticals. Titration may also be used to determine the amount of a certain chemical in food.  Often, titration is used to determine fat content, water content, and concentrations of vitamins. It is also used to tell if cheeses and wines have aged enough for distribution to supermarkets and shops. Scientists of different disciplines use titrations for a variety of different reason. [1] This experiment demonstrates the most common method for obtaining standard solutions for titrimetric analysis using the very essential technique of titration. NaOH was standardized using a primary standard KHP, by titration, this is an excellent method to prepare a secondary standard because of its high level of accuracy. KHP was used because it is of high purity, high molar mass which yields lower massing errors and reacts well with the solution it is titrated with. NaOH was the...
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