Q1. Define nationalism?
Ans. The feeling of oneness and unity among the people of a nation or patriotic feeling, principles and policy of national independence is termed as nationalism.
Q2. What were the factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India?
Ans. The factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India were:
Political associations came into being in the 1870s and 1880s:Most of these were led by English –educated professionals such as lawyers. The more important ones were the Poona Servajanik Sabha, the Indian Association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha, the Bombay Presidency Association and the Indian National Congress.
The dissatisfaction with British rule intensified in the 1870s and 1880s. They posted various laws which upset the people of India. 1. The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indian from
2. In the same year the Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed government to confiscate the assets of
newspapers published anything that was found “objectionable”. 3. In 1883, there was a furore over the attempt by the government to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality
between British and Indian judges in the country. But when
white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians were enraged.
The event h ighlighted the racial attitudes of the British in India.
Q3. When was Indian National Congress formed?
Ans. The Indian National Congress was formed in December, 1885. Q4. Mention the early leaders of Indian National Congress?
Ans. The early leadership:- Dadabhai Naroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddhin Tyabji, W.C. Banerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Iyer.
Q5. Which British officer helped in the formation of Indian National Congress?
Ans. A retired British official, A.O. Hume helped in the formation of Indian National Congress.
Q6. Why were the early years of the Indian National Congress referred to as the moderate phase?
The Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in its objectives and methods.
During this period it demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
It wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where wone existed. It demanded that Indian be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for civil service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
The demand for Indianisation of the administration was part of a movement against racism, since most important jobs at the time were monopolished by white officials and the British generally assumed that Indian could not be given positions of responsibility.
Other demands included the separation of the judiciary from the executive, the repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression.
Q7. What were the economic issues that were raised by the Indian National Congress in its moderate phase?
Ans. The early Congress also raised a number of economic issues: It declared that British rule had led to poverty an d famines: increase in the land revenue had impoverished peasants and zamindars, and exports of grains to Europe had created food shortage.
The Congress demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation.
Q8. Why was Bengal partitioned?
In 1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal. At that time Bengal was the biggest province of British India and included Bihar and parts Orissa.
The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience.
“Administrative convenience” was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen.