* Short Case Study #3
1. Describe the functional anatomy of the spinal cord using the following terms: white matter, gray matter, tracts, roots, and spinal nerves.
* White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system, and it consists of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another as well as in between the cerebrum and lower brain centers. Grey matter contains neural cell bodies. Unlike white matter, it is mostly made up of myelinated axon tracts. Tracts are bundles of fibers that connect to different parts of the CNS. Roots receive information sent by neurons. Spinal nerves refer to a mixture of spinal nerves, which carry motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
2. Define the terms reflex and spinal reflex, and identify the components of the reflex arc.
* A reflex is an involuntary physiological response to a stimulus. A spinal reflex is any reflex action mediated through the center of the spinal cord. The components of the reflex arc include the receptor, sensory neuron, the integration center the motor neuron and the effector.
3. Define the term spinal cord injury (SCI) and state its prevalence.
* A spinal cord injury is damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal. A spinal cord injury often times can cause permanent damage to body functions near the site of the injury. About 0.4% of the U.S population reported to be paralyzed because of a spinal cord injury.
4. Define the terms neurological level, tetraplegia and paraplegia.
* Neurological level refers to the lowest normal part of the spinal cord. Tetraplegia is paralysis caused by injury of the spinal cord that results in partial or total loss of use/movement in all of the limbs and torso. This is also known as quadriplegia. Paraplegia is similar, but does not involve loss of... [continues]
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