Special Educational Needs

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In this essay will discuss the term Special Educational Needs, understanding of segregation, integration and inclusion, the importance of Warnock Report, development in policy since 1981,and the Medical and Social modules. The term Special Educational Needs in child development has a meaning of children who needs extra support. Early in 1700s in Britain term Special Educational Needs did not exist and it did not need to exist as children with Special Educational Needs were looked from their families or church. After the radical change as result of Industrial Revolution in Britain by mid 1800s special institution were created for every human ill. Education on children with Special Educational Needs began through individuals and charities; the first school to be opened was for children with visual impairments in Edinburgh 1976 by Thomas Braidwood he was followed by the school for blind in Liverpool opened by Henry Dannett, this schools however were nothing what we have now but still they made a difference for children in needs as they had very little contact with outside the world. In 1870 Foster Act – Education for all allowed all the children with Special Educational Needs to enter the main stream schools and their difficulties were recognised. Many of these children were experiencing difficulties in making progress and as a result of the elementary classes contain large number of pupils, and they were taught by teachers with no specific special educational trainings. They came to the point that children with SEN were unfit to include in the main stream schools. According to ‘Gibson and Blandford (2005) significantly the report’s recommendations included the integration of pupils with SEN into mainstream education. However, the level of integration indicated in the report was limited form of education provision for pupils with SEN; limited in those pupils although physically located in a mainstream setting, would have to adapt in order to fit the location and culture of established forms of teaching and learning’. In 1893 James Kerr was a medical officer for the Bradford School Board; his role was to assess children’s mental process and identify children that are not suitable for ordinary schools. Special Educational Needs incurred a high cost than ordinary provision. So most of the children were isolated in ordinary schools or received no schooling. Children with visual impairments from the age of five in 1889 should be provided with education and for children with hearing impairments should be taught by specialist teacher and those teachers should get paid more than mainstream teachers. Also in 1889 the commission recommended that each school should have a medical officer. In 1994 Education Act said that every child should receive education within primary, secondary and further education based on pupils age and all the local education authorities should meet the needs of handicapped children. In 1945 service regulations established 11 categories for handicap children. Inclusion is education that means approaching to educate children with Special Educational Needs, under the Inclusion module children with Special Educational Needs have to spend their time with non-disabled children. Inclusion rejects the rights to put a child in need to a special school, inclusion is about mixing all the children together the one in need and the ones that they are not in need, to have the right to be educated in the same way and to meet everybody’s needs and abilities. Integration in Special Educational Needs means the rights of the children, and supporting those children by following the law, Education Act. While the Segregation has a meaning of separating children from each other, the ones that have a disability should be placed to special school and the ones that are in the term ‘normal’ should go to the mainstream schools, also segregation means the discriminations of children from the race, religion and types of disabilities....
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