STRESS AND INTONATION:
While speaking a word, we use extra force in uttering some syllable or syllables in that word. This extra force is called stress and the syllable is called stressed syllable. In the following words, the syllables in bold letters show stress. father| fa-ther| First syllable is stressed|
insult| In-sult| Second syllable is stressed|
TWO TYPES OF STRESS:
There are two types of stress. 1: Word Stress 2: Sentence Stress 1:WORD STRESS:
In single words, stress is placed on syllables.There are two simple rules about stress. a: One word has only one primary stress in it.One word cannot have two stress. b: We stress according to the quality of Vowels not Consonants.(Examples given above) 2: SENTENCE STRESS:
In sentences,we place the stress on words.Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.There are two classes of words. a: Contents Words b: Structure Words
Words carrying the meanings.They are stressed. Main verbs| Sell,go,come,give|
Words showing grammatical relationship,they are not stressed.
The rise and fall of the pitch of our voice is called Intonation.Some degree of intonation is brought about by every person when he/she speaks because the pitch of voice keep on changing. FUNCTION OF INTONATION:
Actually, Intonation is a very difficult area of phonetics investigation. When a foreign learner tries to observe intonation, it is after difficult for him to recognize, what falling tone is, what rising tone is. Q: Describe the activities for the development of speaking skill? The following activities may be used for the development of speaking skills. FOUR TYPES OF CLASS ACTIVITIES:
Language experts have organized oral skills into four distinctive types. 1: DRILLS.
The drill means practice. The students are given assignments(tasks) and are asked to repeat. The students may be asked to repeat the following question answer for many times. Q: What is your name?
Ans: My name is ………..
Q: Where do you live?
Ans: I live in Sahiwal.
2: PERFORMANCE ACTIVITIES:
In these activities, the student prepares himself and delivers a message to a group. A good example of such activity is the students speech. 3: PARTICIPATION ACTIVITIES.
In these activities, the student participates in some communicate activity in a natural setting.One of the most commonly used participation activities is the discussion on some topic. 4: OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES.
In these activities,a student observes something,write a brief summary and presents his findings to the class. SOME COMMONLY USED ACTIVITIES:
1: SHORT SPEECHES.
The students may be given some easy topics.They will prepare them in verbal or written form. Turn by turn, they will come to the stage and deliver a speech for two minutes before the class. 2: DISCUSSIONS.
In this activity,students are given the topic,the students prepare the topics and present.The other students ask the questions and discussion are carried out. 3: ROLE PLAY.
The students may be asked to play different roles in the form of drama. The students perform different roles e.g: Shopkeeper, teacher and doctor etc.In playing different roles,they talk with customer,student and patient.This exercise encourages students to speak. 4: GAP ACTIVITIES.
In this type of...