Sources of Capital: Owner's Equity

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Owner’s Equity as a Source of Capital

Sources of capital come in two forms: debt and equity. Obtaining permanent capital through equity is the capital supplied by the entity’s owners. It is the owner’s share in the financing of all the assets. Richard Scott, United States accounting professor wrote, “one of the most deep-seated, and incontrovertible concepts embraced by accounting theory today is that of owner’s equity.” Through analysis of the case, we found this to be true. There are different financing costs both a company and its investors face when considering equity financing. It is strangely fascinating that often times, equity financing becomes more costly than debt financing. The analysis of opportunity for both sides of the transaction, financier and debtor, requires multiple formulas and calculations. Options for financing vary in pre-tax earnings and return on investment. For this reason, the options should be thoroughly analyzed to find the best yield for both parties, company and investor. Innovative Engineering Company was founded as a partnership, and within five years became a thriving business bringing with it both success and the need for new permanent capital. The two partners, Gale and Yeaton, estimated the capital need at $1.2 million. Initially, the partners found interested investors, but none willing to risk their personal assets by participating in a partnership. Though incorporation is more costly and subject to numerous regulations, it provides limited liability to its investors and the ability to raise capital through bonds and stock. The partners planned to form a corporation to secure investors. Under incorporation, owner’s equity becomes stockholder’s equity. The two types of equity are purchased equity, consisting of preferred stock, common stock, and paid in capital, and that of earned equity, also referred to as retained earnings. The later represents profits earned by the company and retained in the...
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