Socrates

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Sophists cont'd
3) key pre understandings
A all knowledge is relative
B Culture, religion, and ethics are circumstantial and thereby changeable, rather than natural permanent and absolute
4) The sophists role in Athenian Democracy
A The Shift to democract meant that clear speech and the power of persuation was indispensible
B Sophists taught the art of rhetoric, the art of persuasive speech, not for the sake of truth, but for the sake of winning the argument

1 make a bad case look good
2 make an unjust case appear just
3 advance one's special interest
4 Chance the 'goo' life of pleasure

c Sophists did not teach for the sake of leanrning, but for the sake of
1 sought out the wealthy
2 charged high tutorial fees

5) Plato is opposed to the sophists philosophical understandings and actions/ethics, calling them 'hucksters masquerading as philosophers'
6) Protagora's
A 'Man is the measure of all things, of the things that are, that they are, and of the things that are not, that they are not'
B knowledge is limited to perceptions
1 perceptions differ with each person
2 Example: the blowing sea breeze
3 A thing has as many characteristics as there are people percieving it
c There is no way to distinguish between 'appearance' and 'reality'
D Laws and moral rules are based not upon nature but upon convention
E In the interest of a peaceful orderly and stable society people should reject and uphold the customs, laws and moral rules that tradition had carefully nutured
F an agnostic with respect to religion
G philosphically a skeptic, ethically a reletivist, politcally pragmatic and conservative 7)Gorgias
A the logical outcome of a skeptical and reletivistic position is to deny any possibility of truth
B three claims based on logic
1 nothing exists
2 if anything exists, it is incomprehensible
3 even if something is comprehensible, it cannot be communicated
a logos (word, language) is meaningless and a false reference
b the symbol is not the same as the thing it symbolizesthe p
c communication (symbol) cannot impart knowledge
C abandons philosphy and develops the rhetoric (technique) of deception
1 How to play to peoples emotions (not reason)
2 How to employ the powers of suggestion
D Gorgias' position is called ontological and ethical nihilism

SOCRATES
4 major concepts, picked up and developed by platon
1 Soul psyche 2 DIALECTIC - phaedo 88-91 3 Irony 4 Eidos(form)

Dia- through logos- word language, throught language we can understand what something is if we talk about it long enough and logically we wil be able to come to a conclusion, understanding of what something is, this si the way we get at truth, cannot get truth by direct inspection of the things themselves. Does not think the empirical approach is appropriate - sense perceptions, key things are how would we know what good, or just is. Because we do not touch taste see hear or smell good or just. must use different approach

Thinks we can reach an understanding by examining the statements, the words and statements which we make about them. this procedure is dialectic, method of conversation or dialoge. truth can be reached by dialogue or debate can be carried on by two inquriers, but this dialogue or dialectic can also be carried on within one person as ones soul questions itself and answers its own questions.

thinking is the dialogue of the soul with itself. PG 90-91**

Main points pg 90, column 1 section 100a line 4
hypo - under thesis- statement. Hypothesis is statement under a hypothesis when it is true will be telling you about everything universally in that category ex a triangle is a three sided polygon - hypothesis

pg 90 sec 100c line 3
then look at what comes next to those things and see if you think what i do... triangle etc a recognition about the one, one whole universal, but there can be many which participate in the one - right angle, isosceles etc...
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