Sociology. Some Questions and Answers

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1. What are the roles of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer in establishing sociology? 2. Give a definition and name positive and negative sides of the next method: survey.
3. What is the gender socialization? What influences this process?

1. What is the difference between ideas of Karl Marx and Max Weber? 2. Give a definition and name positive and negative sides of the next method: field work.
3. Explain Freud’s theory of socialization?

1. Characterize main modern western sociological theories.
2. Give a definition and name positive and negative sides of the next method: experiment.
3. Give the definition of social group. Give the definition of social group. Name the types of social groups and explain their peculiarities.

1. What are the types of solidarity according to Emile Durkheim? Give a definition of them. 2. What sort of questions do sociologists address?
3. Characterize age stages of human life.

1. What are the basic concepts of structural - functionalism, the conflict approach and symbolic interactionism? 2. What is the scientific method and how can it be applied to the study of sociology? 3. What are some of the challenges and ethical issues in the study of sociology?

1.What has sociology contributed to our understanding of the family? 2. What is deviance?
3. What do ethics of the research include?

1. What is the relationship among culture subculture and counterculture? Counterculture is against the current culture. example : punk rock (which is (for most punks) anti-capitalism, anti-religion and anarchistic)

A subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. Of course, the traditional definition of subculture would indicate that there are more specific cultures that exist within larger and more broadly defined cultures. However, I believe this definition is redundant when one considers how an individual's sense of culture is really the essence of a subculture.

Subcultures can be distinctive because of the age, race, ethnicity, class, and/or gender. The qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be aesthetic, religious, political, sexual, or a combination of these factors. As a consequence one cannot, by nature, be a member of both the mainstream and the counterculture. So in comparison with countercultures subcultures are not neccecarily against the larger culture, while first ones – are.. 2. Explain Jean Piaget theory of socialization.

The psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) of Switzerland is one the most seminal thinkers in the theory of childhood development. Piaget has postulated an Epigenetic Theory of Personality. Epi refers to emergence. The genetic refers to the core of natural material and socialization that comes to form the child. "So, in sum, genetic epistemology deals with both the formation and the meaning of knowledge. We can formulate our problem in the following terms: by what means does the human mind go from a state of less sufficient knowledge to a state of higher knowledge?" (Piaget, 1968).  Piaget's Stage Theory of Development was one of modern psychologies first attempts to comprehend how children progress through cognitive development. His original model describes four universal stages for children. They are: ·        The Sensormotor Period (birth to 2 years) ·        Preoperational Thought  (2 to 6/7 years) ·        Concrete Operations (6/7 years to 11years) ·        Formal Operations (11/12 to adult)

Piaget believed that performance of children was homogenous regardless of culture. It is a widely held position that not all children reach the formal operational period. This may be due to the socialization or externalities operating on a child under different environmental and cultural conditions (Berk, L.E. 2000). There is continued discussion on the movement of children through the development...
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