Sociology and the Development of Human Societies

Topics: Sociology, Religion, Postmodernity Pages: 6 (1934 words) Published: September 8, 2013
Sociology and the development of human societies
Pre- industrial societies
Human history began about 7,000,000 years ago.
It took over 5,000,000 years for these earliest humans to reach the stage described as homo erectus, an upright human, close to a human but with a smaller brain. It took over 5,000,000 years for these earliest humans to reach the stage described as homo erectus, an upright human, close to a human but with a smaller brain. It took 1,500,00 years to reach the stage of homo sapiens. At about this time, 500,000 years ago, humans began migrating out of Africa and spreading to the rest of the world. It took 1,500,00 years to reach the stage of homo sapiens. At about this time, 500,000 years ago, humans began migrating out of Africa and spreading to the rest of the world.

Hunting and Gathering Societies
Early humans all lived in hunting and gathering societies. They were nomads, moving from place to place in search of food and shelter. Early humans all lived in hunting and gathering societies. They were nomads, moving from place to place in search of food and shelter.

Pastoral and Agrarian Societies About 20,000 years ago some hunting and gathering groups started to grow crops. Agriculture provided a more stable supply of food which could support a larger community, and as they settled people started to build up larger stocks of material things. About 20,000 years ago some hunting and gathering groups started to grow crops. Agriculture provided a more stable supply of food which could support a larger community, and as they settled people started to build up larger stocks of material things.

By 8,000 years ago larger societies had developed. Economies were still largely based on agriculture but some large cities existed in which trade and manufacturing was concentrated. By now there were very marked inequalities of wealth and power. By 8,000 years ago larger societies had developed. Economies were still largely based on agriculture but some large cities existed in which trade and manufacturing was concentrated. By now there were very marked inequalities of wealth and power. Non- industrial Civilisations

Most traditional civilisations were empires, meaning that they took over the government of other societies. Britain became part of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago. Most traditional civilisations were empires, meaning that they took over the government of other societies. Britain became part of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago.

The main characteristic of post modernism seems to be a loss of faith of the Enlightenment. It is argued that people have become disillusioned with the idea that we can use science and rational thought to make the world a better place. The main characteristic of post modernism seems to be a loss of faith of the Enlightenment. It is argued that people have become disillusioned with the idea that we can use science and rational thought to make the world a better place. Post Modern Societies

In the past gender roles, ethnic differences, social class differences were all clear cut and people generally conformed to societal expectations. Today the old distinctions are blurring and people choose who they want to be, and how they want to behave. In the past gender roles, ethnic differences, social class differences were all clear cut and people generally conformed to societal expectations. Today the old distinctions are blurring and people choose who they want to be, and how they want to behave.

Modernism always celebrated the new and considered ideas from the past to be ‘old fashioned’. Postmodernism borrows from the past and combines a wide range of styles together. A good example of postmodern building is the Trafford Centre in Manchester. This looks like St Pauls Cathedral from the front, a Norman castle from the back, inside there is the deck of an ocean liner and in another is a Victorian palm house. Modernism always celebrated the new and considered ideas...
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