Sociolinguistics: Linguistics and Lg Variation Lg

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  • Topic: Linguistics, Historical linguistics, Sociolinguistics
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1. The formation of psycholinguistics. A science for the study of language development, understanding and production. Basic terminology Classification of sciences
24 main branches (e.g. linguistics)
221 branches (e.g. applied linguistics)
1995 sub-branches {applications} (e.g. sociology)

Linguistics can be:
1. theoretical or applied;
2. synchronic (descriptive) or diachronic (historical).

Diachronic linguistics:
1. comparative;
2. history of linguistics (historical);
3. etymology.

Synchronic linguistics:
1. descriptive (phonetics and phonology; grammar; morphology; syntax; semantics; pragmatics) 2. psycholinguistics;
3. sociolinguistics;
4. stylistics and rhetoric;
5. contrastive linguistics;
6. lexicography …

Applied linguistics is an inter- and multi disciplinary science. Interdisciplinary means that it lies b/w 2 science sub-branches. E.g. psychology + linguistics = psycholinguistics. Multidisciplinary means that many sub-branches create a new branch of science.

Theoretical linguistics is a pure.

The notion of psycholinguistics: It is the psychology of the process of using languages. Research in psycholinguistics opens a window to the nature and structure of the human mind.

The individual has language acquisition, which capacity is not language specific. The diachronical aspect is life. With aging an individual creates language dissolution. The synchronic aspects are language comprehension (listening and reading) and language production (speaking and writing). In these cases there is only one language. On the contrary, language pedagogy has translation and interpretation as synchronic aspects. In this case there are 2 languages simultaneously.

1. developmental: language acquisition; second language acquisition (SLA) ↔ language loss; 2. experimental: language comprehension and language production.

Language dissolution is a loss of language in an individual. Language loss is a phenomenon in social. A group of people loose the language use. A dominating language takes the place of another. Language death is when the last speaker of the language dies.

The worth of psycholinguistics: objects of psycholinguistics are how people acquire, comprehend and produce language(s). These are important, basic parts of course books.

History of psycholinguistics:
1st, there are signposts before a new science develops. These are the forerunners.

C. W. MORRIS (1938): Foundations of the theory of signs (in International encyclopaedia of unified science). → Syntactics (syntax) is a level in language which is dealing with the relationship of signs to signs. → Semantics is a level in language which is dealing with the relationship of signs to their meanings. → Pragmatics deals with the relationship of signs to the people who use them.

MILLER – psycholinguist; 1964: Language and psycholinguistics (edited in New directions in the study of language edited by Lenneberg, Cambridge, Mas). → Syntactics: problems of structure. It is the best known branch of linguistics, investigated by the linguists. → Semantics: problems of comprehension. It is the second best known branch researched by philosophers and anthropologists. → Pragmatics: problems of belief. It is the least known branch researched by psychologists.

e.g. In a Chicago weekly, called The Reader: An advertisement: On a downtown cocktail lounge called “Sweet Alice”: “I brought sushi home and cooked it; it wasn’t bad.” → sushi and cooking are semantically wrong. But it is an ad, an invitation, so it is a pragmatic act. ‘Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.’ (Chomsky)

Flying planes can be dangerous.
The missionaries are ready to eat. → ambiguity.

The 4 periods in the history of psycholinguistics:
1. formative period
It started in 1951, at the Social science research council at Cornell University. The term...
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