Group # 7Section: 2GPh Date Performed: 12/10/12
Date Submitted: 12/17/12

Members: Salcedo, Jan Michael Sandimas, Gabriel Jerome
*Samar, Bea Marie Semillano, Charisse
San Juan, Maria Ysabel Sta. Ana, Mariel

EXPERIMENT No. 2
The Simple Pendulum

Abstract
A simple pendulum is one which can be considered to be a point mass suspended from a string or rod of negligible mass and allowing it to sway back and forth in a place. The objective of this experiment is to observe the motion of a simple pendulum, study simple harmonic motion, determine some factors that affect the period of a pendulum, and measure the value of acceleration due to gravity by use of a simple pendulum. The materials used were inelastic yarn, meter stick, timer, protractor and pre-measured metal bobs of different masses.

Question and Problems
1. Using MS Excel, Graph and display Table 3. Length vs. Square of Time. What relationship exists between the length of the pendulum and the square of its period?

As seen in the graph, as the length of the pendulum decreases, the square of its period decreases as well. This shows a direct relationship between the two variables.

2. What are the factors affecting the period of a simple pendulum? The factors that affect the period of a simple pendulum are the length of the simple pendulum and as well as the gravity. The mass of the metal bobs and the amplitude of the pendulum have little or no effect on the period. 3. What must you do to the length of a simple pendulum so that its period is doubled? Since the length of the simple pendulum and the period have a direct relationship, doubling the length of the simple pendulum will also double the period. 4. Determine the acceleration due to gravity in a location where a simple pendulum is 150.0 cm long makes 100 vibrations in 246 s. T=2π L

...SimplePendulum Experiment
In this experiment you will make a simplependulum consisting of a plumb bob and a piece of string anchored at two points. By attaching the string to two points the normal precession that would occur will be eliminated.
[pic]
Items to be turned in as report:
1) all discussion question answers (be thorough)
2) graph of period squared versus length
3) simple data tables of collected data
4) graphical analysis answers
5) using your values for g, calculate average deviation and average percent error (using
9.807 m/s2 as theoretical value)
6) overall conclusions about the experiment (using normal lab report conclusion format)
The SimplePendulum: An Exercise in Measurement and Graphical Analysis
A phenomena which repeats some action over and over again in a regular way is said to be periodic. The time for such a system to exactly complete the repetitive action once is called the period. For example, the period of the Earth in its orbit is one year and the period of your heartbeat is about one second. Periodic phenomena are very common in nature and when they are sufficiently reliable they are sometimes used to measure time. One of the simplest devices which exhibit periodic motion is the simplependulum. A simplependulum consists of a heavy object suspended by...

...Physics Investigation: What factors affect the period of a pendulum?
By Tanya Waqanika
In this investigation, I will be looking at which factors affect the period (The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing) of a pendulum (a weight that dangles from a pivot so that it can swing freely). I will do this by tying a metal bob to a length of spring and dropping it from a certain height and measuring the time it takes to complete an oscillation, changing a variable for each of my preliminary investigations.
Independent Variable | Dependent Variable | Control Variables |
Length of String (continuous) | Period of the pendulum (continuous) | Diameter of Bob |
| | Type of Bob |
| | Angle bob dropped from |
| | Person stopping stopwatch |
| | Person dropping bob |
| | Height Bob is dropped from |
Preliminary Investigations
Preliminary One: Length of Strong
Results Table
| Time of Period (seconds) |
Length of String | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Trial 3 | Ranges | Averages (mean) |
10cm | 0.87 | 0.69 | 0.87 | 0.69-0.87 | 0.81 |
20cm | 1.01 | 1.02 | 1.01 | 1.01-1.02 | 1.01 |
30cm | 1.32 | 1.42 | 1.32 | 1.32-1.42 | 1.35 |
40cm | 1.66 | 1.71 | 1.66 | 1.66-1.71 | 1.68 |
According to my graph, there is a positive correlation between the period of a pendulum and the length of string, meaning that as...

...EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of g: Use of a simplependulum
OBJECTIVE: To measure the acceleration due to gravity using a simplependulum.
Textbook reference: pp10-15
INTRODUCTION:
Many things in nature wiggle in a periodic fashion. That is, they vibrate. One such example is a simplependulum. If we suspend a mass at the end of a piece of string, we have a simplependulum. Here, the to and fro motion represents a periodic motion used in times past to control the motion of grandfather and cuckoo clocks. Such oscillatory motion is called simple harmonic motion. It was Galileo who first observed that the time a pendulum takes to swing back and forth through small distances depends only on the length of the pendulum The time of this to and fro motion, called the period, does not depend on the mass of the pendulum or on the size of the arc through which it swings. Another factor involved in the period of motion is, the acceleration due to gravity (g), which on the earth is 9.8 m/s2. It follows then that a long pendulum has a greater period than a shorter pendulum.
Before coming to lab, you should visit the following web site: http://www.myphysicslab.com/pendulum1.html This simulation shows a simplependulum operating under gravity. For small...

...investigation of the simplependulum
2.0 Objectives
The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the time taken on the greatest possible precision of period of simplependulum and the value of g, acceleration due to gravity and two different periods of both big and small simple pendulum’s oscillations.
3.0 Summary of Result
The results of the experiment have proven the acceleration due to gravity and the precision of period of simplependulum. Besides that, the length of the pendulum did influence the period and the period increased linearly with length. The results matched to within 11.00 %. Thus the experiments were all carried out successfully.
4.0 Theory
A simplependulum consisting of a point mass m, tied to a string, length L. The period of a pendulum is also known as the time taken for the pendulum oscillates one complete cycle. To have a complete cycle, Figure 1 show the motion of pendulum when it is released. The bob will move from A to rest position to B to rest position again and lastly back to point A.
Figure 1
The starting angle, Ө is the maximum amplitude of the oscillations. The amplitude will decreases with time since the energy will losses. For small starting angle, Period of pendulum, T can be calculated by the formula below, with g...

...HSC PHYSICS
2011
HSC PHYSICS
2011
PENDULUM MOTION
BY NATHAN LOCKE
Image taken from http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_480.html
Pendulum Motion
Aim: To determine the rate of acceleration due to gravity by using a pendulum.
Background Information:
Equation One:
T=2πlg
Where
T = the period of the pendulum (s). This is the time taken for the pendulum to return to its starting position.
l = length of the pendulum
g = the rate of acceleration due to gravity (ms-2)
* In order to find the acceleration due to gravity, the equation must be rearranged to look like this, and give “g” as the subject:
g=4π2lT2
Procedure:
1. Mass to stop the stand falling over
Mass to stop the stand falling over
Protractor (attached)
Protractor (attached)
Bosshead
Bosshead
Retort Stand
Retort Stand
Mass
Mass
String
String
Clamp
Clamp
In a group of 2, we set up the apparatus shown below:
2. We measured the length of the pendulum from the base of the mass to the swinging point on the clamp. We recorded this length in our table.
3. We moved the position of the pendulum to 27° from the vertical.
4. We released the pendulum, and recorded the time taken for ten complete oscillations using a stopwatch.
5. We reduced the length of the pendulum by approximately 8cm and repeated steps two to five,...

...Report : Experiment One
Title: Determination of the acceleration due to gravity with a simplependulum
Introduction and Theory: A simplependulum performs simple harmonic motion, i.e. its periodic motion is defined by an acceleration that is proportional to its displacement and directed towards the centre of motion. It can be shown that the period T of the swinging pendulum is proportional to the square root of the length l of the pendulum: T2= (4π2l)/g
with T the period in seconds, l the length in meters and g the gravitational acceleration in m/s2. Our raw
data should give us a square-root relationship between the period and the length. Furthermore, to find an accurate value for ‘g’, we will also graph T2 versus the length of the pendulum. This way, we will be
able to obtain a straight-line graph, with a gradient equal to 4π2g–1.
Procedure: Refer to lab manual.
Measurement / Data:
Length of Pendulum ( l +/- 0.1 cm) | Time for 20 Oscillations (s) | Time for 1 Oscillation (Periodic Time) T (s) | T^2 ( s^2) |
| 1 | 2 | Mean | | |
35 | 24.00 | 23.87 | 23.94 | 1.20 | 1.43 |
45 | 26.50 | 26.75 | 26.63 | 1.33 | 1.77 |
55 | 29.94 | 29.81 | 29.88 | 1.49 | 2.23 |
65 | 32.44 | 32.31 | 32.38 | 1.62 | 2.62 |
75 | 35.06 | 35.00 | 35.03 | 1.75 | 3.07 |
85 | 37.06 | 36.87 | 36.97 | 1.85 | 3.42 |
95 | 39.25 | 39.19 |...

...design a system that would test if changing the mass, angle of release and length would have any effect on the period of a pendulum.
Hypothesis
As the length, mass and angle of release change, the period (T) will change for each one of these factors.
Materials
Lab stand
Protractor
Cardboard
Fishing line
Stopwatch
Weights
Hook for weights
Tape
Ruler
Weighing scale
Logger Pro
Variables
Independent
Angle of release
Dependent
Period
Length of string
Mass of bob
Design
Procedure
First you have to set the lab up as seen above. Draw the protractor on a piece of paper and stick this piece of paper on a cardboard board. Attach this cardboard board to the lab stand with ductape. Attach the string to the lab stand and add the hook with mass to the string.
Then you can start testing the affect of change when the angle of release changes. Look at your protractor and release the pendulum at an angle of 10º. Press the timer as you let go and stop the timer as the bob made a complete cycle. Do this two more times so you have three trials for the release angle of 10º. Then make the angle of release 20º and do three trials again. Change the angel of release with 10º each time for 5 trials.
After testing the affect of change in the angle of release you can start testing the effect of change when you change the length of the pendulum. Start with any length and every time add a constant amount of extra...

...Lab Report - The SimplePendulum
Name: XXXXXXX XXXXX XXXXXXX
Date: January 18, 2013
Objective:
Gain insight on how scientists come to understand natural phenomena through theoretical and experimental data by determining the Period of a SimplePendulum. This experiment will introduce us to the processes of data collection and the procedures used for data /error analysis.
Theory:
A Period of motion is a physical quantity associated with any cyclical natural phenomenon and is defined as one complete cycle of motion. There are many examples of this in nature, such as the earth’s period of rotation around the sun takes approximately 365 days.
The SimplePendulum is a basic time-keeping apparatus. A weight is suspended on a length of string which in turn is attached to a frictionless pivot so it can swing freely. The time period it takes to complete one swing is determined by the theoretical equation derived from the Physical Theory of Repeating Motions, aka Simple Harmonic Motion.
T=2π〖[L⁄g]〗^(1/2)
Where T is the period, L is the length of the pendulum and g is the acceleration due to gravity,
g=9.81 m/s^2.
Once finding the theoretical period we when can compare it to experimental measured value we found of the period. In gathering the experimental data there will be a degree of uncertainty associated with the gathered values. Because of...