a) Compare and contrast WID and GAD approaches to the involvement of women in development The W.I.D approach mainly focuses on women and their lack of participation as the main problem. Women subordination is seen in terms of their exclusion from the market sphere and limited access to and control over resources hence the main goal of the approach is a more and effective development that includes women .Similarly the G.A.D approach talks about woman participation in development though taking note of the social relations between woman and men be it in the work place or in other settings. Moser (1993) argued that G.A.D focuses on the interconnection of gender, class, colonial history, culture and position in the international economic order. Therefore despite varying in their nature they both seek to address the issue of effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable development by women and also men. Tichagwa (1998) argued that the Women in Development theory are an approach giving special attention to women’s needs. Its main aim is to empower women so as to emancipate the condition of women in the society which has been perceived with docetism by the patriarchal society. The W.I.D approach has been established by governments and Non Governmental of separate structures bearing the mandate for women with the result that ‘mainstreaming’ structures have not incorporate women issues and interests. However Since 1980’s, there has been been growing recognition that an analysis of gender relations which deals only with women is not complete and the focus has shifted towards the equal division of labour, power and resources between men and women in societies which claim to offer equal benefits to everyone in a community. Thus women have been empowered through formation of social groups such as Women of Zimbabwe Arise (W.O.Z.A),through these organization women have been empowered to be economic regenerative and improve the countries capital through the informal sector whereby small scale profit making projects like soap making and peanut butter making were introduced for women. The main focus of these income generating projects for women was to empower them as it had been realized that the process of marginalization from the factors of production makes women subordinates in the few firms they were employed or at most made them absent from the business world. Whilst the Gender And Development approach seeks no special privileges for women and simply demands that everyone should receive consideration without desermination based on their sex’s and they seek to remove barriers that prevent equal excess for women to the so called jobs for men for example engineering. As propounded by Chiriga (1998) the approach challenges ideas institutions practices that women are second class citizens who are below men. Women in development approach is a diverse approach competing or often opposing collection of moral philosophers largely motivated by experience of women especially in terms of their economic inequality as postulated by Prasad (2006).
Furthermore, the W.I.D approach calls for greater attention to women in development policy and also emphasizes the need to integrate them into the development process. The WID approach aimed at providing material goods for under privileged women for example in the rural areas of Zimbabwe where by there is women cooperatives that are given loans and machinery to set up small scale projects. Though this approach has failed to realize the need for gender equality since there is no integration on national and economic development. According to Rostow (1960) he proclaimed that the approach also focuses on woman as an analytic and operational category emphasizing the needs of women only thus did not consider men. Interventions take the form of women specific policies, programes and projects which try to make woman invisible in the development. Moreover, according to Frerks (2005) the W.I.D approach...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document