Sexual Harassment in Workplace

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
A decade ago, there have been noticing an increase on awareness of sexual harassment at workplace, since the rising of sexual harassment practice at workplace. The rise of sexual harassment begun as females enters the workforce. A research conducted at UK, shows that around 60% of females at work and 90% of female undergraduates experiences sexual harassment (Wilson, 1995) Despite that, there are many cases of female who do not report on sexual harassment (Davidson and Cooper, 1993; Kingsmill, 1989) Known that workplace have become “home” for most working class, in terms of hours spent in a day, it’s now significant to create an encouraging environment for male and female employees. Therefore, any forms of unhealthy behavior which intimidates the well being of employees should be avoid due to any circumstances which will interrupt the employees performance at an organization. The violence between male towards female at workplace is the most violent act (Walby, 1986). In addition ,this violent act has course an increase level of awareness compare to office romances (Barton & Eichelberger, 1994). The relationship between men and women at workplace at times should be comprehended because it is nature that human goes into relationship. However, employees should understand that romance and harassment are issues at place of work which is significant to the environment. For the upcoming sections, the author provides a detailed literature review by defining sexual harassment according to previous studies, history of sexual harassment, sexual harassment in workplace, sexual harassment in Malaysian workplace and its types and also workplace policy which consist of two part; Unwritten policy and Strict Written Policy. Furthermore, the author shares the research methodology with sample demographics, questions from the survey, and an interview was conducted. The author concludes the research with conclusion and recommendation for future work.

1.1 Background of study

Sexual harassment arises in all workplace, holistically when it favors one gender. For instance there has been a survey which concludes that 96 per cent of women get harassed at a majority male workplace compare to 48 per cent of non male majority workplace (LEEDS TURIC, 1983) Trade Union and Community Resource and Information Centre .Research done by (DiTomaso, 1989) shows that woman done feel comfortable working with an environment full with males. Not forgetting that there are cases where men suffers from sexual harassment (Townsend & Luthar, 1995). In addition, women intentionally harass men when their working environment are female oriented (Pringle, 1989).According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the United States (EEOC), the complaints of males getting harassed have been increase from 481 complaints to 1500 complaints within 3 years. In addition, despite harassment of men by women, or women by men there are also homosexual harassment, workers by customers and even third-party harassment nowadays. (Laxman, Som, Saat, Low; 2000) The Malaysian Human Resource Ministry established the Code of Practice, an Eradication of sexual harassment in 1999. The reason behind this is for employers to establish a helping hand for employees to handle any sort of sexual harassment at workplace. Furthermore it is also used as a protection for an individual’s self-respect at workplace. (HRM, 1999) includes initiatives of a policy statement; For instance, stated in the policy statement are the definition of sexual harassment, complaint’s procedure, rules and regulations of workplace, consequence against harasser, false allegation, protective ways for victim and comprehension programs for company policy to bring up the awareness of sexual harassment and its consequences of workers at the workplace.

1.2 Significant of Research
In today’s context, workforce requires both male and female to work closer. So, organizations should ensure...
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