eparatist movements in India can broadly be divided in to various categories on the basis of various factors like geographical locations of area, historical backgrounds, ethnicity, language & religion, etc.
The first important movement discussed in the paper is struggle of Kashmiris for their right of self- determination. Infact, at the time of independence in 1947, the princely states were given the option to either join India or Pakistan on the basis of two guiding principles, geographical contiguity & desire of the majority. But in case of Kashmir, notwithstanding this fact that Pakistan was fulfilling these two principles, the Indian forces entered the valley on the pretext of enforcing the instrument of accession signed between. Maharaja and Indian government in disregard of the agreed principle of accession applied elsewhere & against the wishes & aspirations of Kashmiri people. Meanwhile, however, the people of Poonch along with Pathan tribes had liberated the area, now called Azad Kashmir. When India realized that the whole Kashmir could be liberated, it immediately rushed UN Security Council which imposed an immediate cease-fire & ruled that the final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir would be made in accordance with the will of the Kashmiris expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. But even after the passage of more than six decades, the plebiscite could not be held because of the attitude of successive Indian governments. The Kashmiris continued their peaceful struggle, & the recent movement gained momentum in 1990s because of inspiration they received from similar freedom movements in other parts of world coupled with revolt against atrocities & brutalities being committed by Indian forces in IHK. The Indian forces tried to suppress this movement by using massive force, but could not succeed. In this paper, it has been argued that the Kashmir issue is the most problematic element between Pakistan and India, and military competition has
led both the nations to introduce nuclear weapons into their military
If this issue is not resolved, then there is every possibility of a nu clear war between two nuclear states.
In the paper, the causes & background of another important separatist movement raging in Punjab (Indian), commonly known as Khalistan movement, have been discussed in detail. Like struggle movement of Kashmir, it also originated at the time of partition. They are similar due to the fact that in both cases Indian leaders made commitments & pledges, but the Congress Party repudiated all such pledges& commitments of Nehru & Gandhi along with resolutions of Constituent Assembly regarding safeguarding the interests of Sikh Community in Eastern Punjab case & holding of plebiscite in case of Kashmir. In addition to it, the language issue, demand for a Punjabi “Suba” & diversion of Punjab Rivers water were the main issues which created bitterness & resentment amongst Sikh Community in first three decades after independence. However, the attack on Golden temple & brutally killing Sikhs (including a large number of pilgrims) in cold blood in BLUE-STAR operation, were the causes of present on-going struggle of Sikh community for a separate homeland. It is propagated by Indian officials & media that the idea of an independent country for Sikh community has become an old story. But the research paper shows that the Khalistan Council comprising various Sikh organizations has very recently reasserted their demand for a separate Sikh state and vowed that the problem was not over. The Council says that Khalistan was the idea of the first guru of the Sikhs -- Guru Nanak, & the Sikh community would continue its struggle for a separate homeland. But the separatist movements raging in North Eastern region & other parts of India are posing the gravest threat to territorial integrity...