However, many individuals are labelled negatively but do not fulfil the expectation given by the label. For example, despite negative labelling in the media, not all Black teenagers show aggressive or antisocial behaviour.
Jahoda investigated the link between the meaning of names in Ashanti culture and the likelihood of showing criminal behaviour. In Ashanti culture the males born on a Monday are given a name that means ‘peaceful nature’, while those born on a Wednesday are given a name that means ‘aggressive nature’. Jahoda examined court records and found that males born on a Wednesday had a higher arrest rate than those born on a Wednesday.
This study strongly supports the self-fulfilling prophecy theory because the meaning behind Ashanti names can be seen as a label. Wednesday-born males may have treated with fear or suspicion, leading them to respond defensively and aggressively to others and thus fulfil the expectation.
Rosenthal and Jacobson’s study also supports the self-fulfilling prophecy theory. They found that when teachers were given positive expectations for a number of randomly chosen...