Self Esteem with Parents

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Running head: SELF ESTEEM LEVELS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF PARENTS.

Measuring levels of self esteem in two parent and
single parent families

Contents

Page

Abstract……………………………………………………………..3

Introduction………………………………………………………4-5

Method……………………………………………………….…..6

Results………………………………………………………….….7-8

Discussion………………………………………………………...8-9

Appendix A……………………………………………………….10

Appendix B…………………………………………………………11

Appendix C………………………………………………………….12

References……………………………………………………………13

Abstract
Self-esteem refers to a person’s subjective positive or negative appraisal of oneself (Sedikides & Gregg 2003). Research has found that being a parent from two parent family improves self esteem levels (David, H 1987). The current study aims to investigate this relationship using the Rosenburg self-esteem questionnaire. The test recruited 40 participants, 20 from two parent families and 20 from single who each completed the questionnaire. Data analysis found that although there is a small relationship between the two, the effect is not large enough to support the findings by H, David. The implications are important in terms of parenting and it may be interesting to investigate whether employment status has an impact and how much this affects their children.

Measuring levels of self esteem in two parent and single parent families
Self-esteem or self-worth refers to a person’s subjective appraisal of himself or herself as intrinsically positive or negative (Sedikides & Gregg 2003). Sedikides and Gregg also stated that self-esteem involves both self-relevant beliefs and associated emotions and finds expression in behaviour. In addition, self-esteem can be construed as an enduring personality characteristic (trait) or as a temporary psychological condition and may be specific to a particular dimension ("I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular") or global in extent ("I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general"). The term "self-esteem" was first coined by William James in 1890 (www.psychologytoday.com). One of the oldest concepts in psychology, self-esteem is the third most frequently occurring theme in psychological literature (Rodewalt & Tragakis 2003). Given such a long and varied history, it is not surprising to find that many theoretical perspectives have their own definition of self-esteem. Three major definitions exist, each of which has generated its own research, findings, and practical applications. The original definition by William James sees self-esteem as a ratio of successes compared to failures in areas of life that are important to a given individual, or that individual’s "success (to) pretensions" ratio (James 1890). Albert Bandura in his theory of social learning developed the concept of "self-efficacy" which is similar to this concept of self-esteem.

The next being developed in the mid 1960s by Morris Rosenberg a social-learning theorists, she defined self-esteem in terms of a stable sense of personal worth or worthiness, (see Rosenberg self esteem scale fig4). This became the most frequently used definition for research, but involves problems of boundary-definition, making self-esteem indistinguishable from such things as narcissism or simple bragging.

The third, Nathaniel Branden in 1969 briefly defined self-esteem as "...the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness". This two-factor approach, as some have also called it, provides a balanced definition that seems to be capable of dealing with limits of defining self-esteem primarily in terms of competence or worth alone. Branden’s (1969) description of self-esteem includes the following primary properties:

A: self-esteem as a basic human need, i.e., "...it makes an essential contribution to the life...
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