Garments are shaped and formed in three ways:
•Materials moulded to form
•Fabric pieces cut to shape
•Pieces assembled together by stitching
The commonest way of assembling a garment is sewing garment parts together by SEAMS and STITCHES. The standard guidelines for stitches and seams regarding nomenclature and types are provided by- United States Federal Stitch and Seam Specifications (Federal Standard 751a) which was adopted in 1971 and revised in 1983 The British Standard Bs 3870: Schedule of stitching and seams was developed about the same time Definition:
1.Stitch: A stitch is one unit of conformation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand/strands or loop/loops of thread into or through a material at uniformly spaced intervals to form a series of stitches. Or A stitch is one unit of conformation resulting from one or more strands or loops of thread intralooping, interlooping, or passing into or through a material.
Intralooping is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by the same thread. Interlooping is the passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by a different thread. Interlacing, another term often used in stitches is passing of a thread over or around another thread or loop of another thread.
2.SEAM: A seam is a joint consisting of sequence of stitches uniting two or more pieces of material and is used for assembling parts in the production of sewn items. Or
The application of a series of stitches to hold several thickness of materials. 3.STITCHING: It consists of a sequence of stitches for finishing an edge or for ornamental purposes or both in preparing parts for assembling. DIFFERENT PARTS OF A SEAM:
PROPERTIES OF SEAMS:
1.Appearance: A seam should be smooth, without turning or pucker, without missed or uneven stitches and no damage should be caused to the material sewn. 2.Performance: performance of seam means achievement of strength, elasticity, durability, security and comfort and maintenance of any specified fabric properties such as waterproofing or flame proofing. •Seams must be durable to the abrasion experienced in wearing to sustain during the life of the garment. •Seam must be strong as fabric in directions both parallel to and at right angles to the seam. •Seam must stretch and recover with the fabric as stretch is always an important factor for comfort of wearing a garment. Comfort stretch is upto 30% and action stretch is around 100% or more. •Seam should be secure against fraying apart and unravelling of stitches. •For specialised purposes like waterproofing, if a fabric is coated in PVC, neoprene or polyurethane to make it water proof, a simple form of seam joining two sections of fabric will leave gaps between sections as well as needle hole along the joins, the seam will not be water proof. So, in this case, the seam should be welded, taped or doped to seal over the join and block up the needle holes. FACTORS INFLUENCING SEAM PERFORMANCE:
•Sewing machine feeding mechanism
SEAM TYPES AND COMMON USES:
Class 1: Superimposed seam- side seam of garments, attaching elastic, collars and cuffs, inserting additional component like piping Class 2: Lapped seam- side seam of jeans, attaching yokes, sewing labels Class 3: Bound seam- bounding with ribbon or braid, t shirt neckline, Class 4: Flat seam- raglan seams, underwear
Class 5: Decorative stitching- jeans pockets, raised stitching for holding quilting Class 6: Edge neatening- to avoid fraying of edge of fabric Class 7: Addition of separate items- attaching lace band at the edge of a slip Class 8: one piece of material involved- belt loop
Stitch is a formation of thread for the purpose of making a seam. The stitch classes...