Scope of Economics
‘Scope’ means the sphere of study. We have to consider what economics studies and what lies beyond it. The scope of economics will be brought out by discussing the following. a) Subject – matter of economics.
b) Economics is a social science
c) Whether Economics is a science or an art?
d) If Economics is science, whether it is positive science or a normative science?
a) Subject – matter of economics: Economics studies man’s life and work. It does not study how a person is born, how he grows up and dies, how human body is made up and functions, all these are concerned with biological sciences, Similarly Economics is also not concerned with how a person thinks and the human organizations being these are a matter of psychology and political science. Economics only tells us how a man utilizes his limited resources for the satisfaction of his unlimited wants, a man has limited amount of money and time, but his wants are unlimited. He must so spend the money and time he has that he derives maximum satisfaction. This is the subject matter of Economics. Economic Activity: It we look around, we see the farmer tilling his field, a worker is working in factory, a Doctor attending the patients, a teacher teaching his students and so on. They are all engaged in what is called “Economic Activity”. They earn money and purchase goods. Neither money nor goods is an end in itself. They are needed for the satisfaction of human wants and to promote human welfare. To fulfill the wants a man is taking efforts. Efforts lead to satisfaction. Thus wants- Efforts-Satisfaction sums up the subject matter of economics. b) Economics is a social Science: In primitive society, the connection between wants efforts and satisfaction is close and direct. But in a modern Society things are not so simple and straight. Here man produces what he does not consume and consumes what he does not produce. When he produces more, he has to sell the excess quantity. Similarly he has...
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