Chapter 8 Heredity and Genetic Variation (Objectives)
pg. 192-221 Questions:
1. The role of genes in heredity is to carry the traits for the making of DNA. 2. The law of probability says that each chance of probability is equal in the sense of the possible outcomes of the traits present. 4. Dominant masks the recessive which in situations where both trait alleles are present in a gene the organism would be heterozygous and the dominant allele will be what phenotype trait will be shown on the organism. 5.
6. The homozygous name for an organism is to describe when the alleles are both the same meaning not a carrier while heterozygous is where the carrier is when the alleles are different. 7. The genotype of an organism is the factual formula while the phenotype is the physical trait; the visible trait not just represented by letters. 8. The gene symbols for homozygous would be for example a blue fish could be represented by BB for dominant or bb if blue trait is recessive. 9. Mendel’s observations of genetics relates to chromosome theory of heredity because they both deal with the genetic material coming from the mother and father of the organism. 10. Beadle and Tatum’s work opened up a whole new way of looking at genes and what they do as well as their functions and structural formation. Also their work helped to observe crossing between two sexes forming variability of offspring for genetic combinations and trait outcome. 11. The biochemical nature of a gene mutation is to add traits into a gene to create specific trait for the organism for the phenotype when it is birthed. 12. A mutant differs from other characteristics of a given individual because they change the pattern of DNA which also changes how the organism was supposed to look to how it does do to a skip of DNA pattern. 13. Genetic information transmitted by DNA is determined by converting it to RNA through transcription. 14. The structure of DNA determines the gene properties of replication, mutation, and transmission of information to succeeding generations by the continuous pattern replicating the DNA where it can skip a couple sets in the set due to mutation and then transmitting the information into RNA.
Figure 1. DNA replication.
16. A DNA structure differs from RNA structures because RNA consist of single poly-nucleotide strand while, DNA consist of double-strands arranged in an anti-parallel manner and coiled to form a double helix. 18. The roles of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA is to have genetic code specified the amino acid sequence for protein synthesis, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis, and functioned in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. 19.
Figure 2. Mendelian Dihybrid Cross (ratio 9:3:3:1).
20. From the interaction of its biological inheritance and its environment resulted in an organisms characteristic such as a camilian because it inherits its color adapting abilities and is able to blend in with any environment to adapt itself. 21.
Figure3. Inheritance of x-linked traits.
22. Genetic Pedigrees are used to show the generation of traits and where the traits came from and where they were pasted to. 23. dominant: B-brown, recessive b-white:, Co-dominant: Bb, Incomplete dominance: Bb Roam, sex linkage (XB,XB) (XB, Xb),(Xb, Xb), (XB, y), (Xb,Y). 24. An example of genetic disorder is Down’s syndrome.
26. Chromosomal abnormalities:
1. Triple X
2. Turner Syndrome
3. Trisomies 13 and 18
4. Klinefelter Syndrome
Probability: the chance that any given event will occur.
Dominant: a trait is visible in a heterozygous organism.
Recessive: a term used to describe an allele or trait that is masked by a dominant allele or trait. Trait: a characteristic...
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