Answers to Conceptual Integrated Science End-of-Chapter Questions Chapter 1: About Science
Answers to Chapter 1 Review Questions 1 The era of modern science in the 16th century was launched when Galileo Galilei revived the Copernican view of the heliocentric universe, using experiments to study nature’s behavior. 2 In Conceptual Integrated Science, we believe that focusing on math too early is a poor substitute forconcepts. 3 We mean that it must be capable of being proved wrong. 4 Nonscientiﬁc hypotheses may be perfectly reasonable; they are nonscientiﬁc only because they are not falsiﬁable—there is no test for possible wrongness. Galileo showed the falseness of Aristotle’s claim with a single experiment—dropping heavy and 5 lightobjects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. 6 A scientiﬁc fact is something that competent observers can observe and agree to be true; a hypothesis is an explanation or answer that is capable of being proved wrong; a law is a hypothesis that has been tested over and over and not contradicted; a theory is a synthesis of facts and well-tested hypotheses. In everyday speech, a theory is the same as a hypothesis—a statement that hasn’t been tested. 7 8 Theories grow stronger and more precise as they evolve to include new information. 9 The term supernatural literally means “above nature.” Science works within nature, not above it. 10 They rely on subjective personal experience and do not lead to testable hypotheses. They lie outside the realm of science. Science, art, and religion can work very well together; like strings on a guitar, when played 11 together, the chord they produce can be a chord of profound richness. 12 Science is concerned with gathering knowledge and organizing it. Technology lets humans use that knowledge for practical purposes, and it provides the instruments scientists need to conduct their investigations. 13 Chemistry builds on physics by telling us how matter is put together, how atoms combine to form molecules, and how the molecules combine to make the materials around us. Biology is more complex than physical science (physics and chemistry), because it involves matter that is alive and, therefore, engaged in complex biochemical processes. 14 Integrated science is valuable because the real-life phenomena we are interested in typically involve principles from more than one branch of science; put another way, we study integrated science because the world is integrated. Answers to Chapter 1 Integrated Science Concepts Chemistry and Biology: An Investigation of Sea Butterﬂies 1 The disciplines of biology and chemistry are needed to understand the behavior of the Antarctic amphipod. 2 The control used in the investigation was the pellets fed to the predator ﬁsh that were not treated with sea-butterﬂy extracts. The control was needed to see whether the chemical deterrent isolated from the sea butterﬂy deterred the predator ﬁsh. 3 McClintock and Baker’s hypothesis was that amphipods carry sea butterﬂies because sea butterﬂies pro-duce a chemical that deters a predator of the amphipod. This is a scientiﬁc hypothesis because it would be proven wrong if the secreted chemical were found to not deter amphipod predators. Answers to Chapter 1 Exercises
1. Are the various branches of science separate or do they overlap? Give several examples to support your answer. The various branches of science overlap as we see by the existence of these hybrid ﬁelds: astrobiology; biochemistry; biophysics; ecology (biology and earth science); geochemistry, etc. 2. What do science, art, and religion have in common? How are they different? Science, art, and religion are all searches for deeper understanding of the world. The differences can be summed up as follows: science asks how, art asks who, and religion asks why. The most important difference between religion and science is that religion asks why and science asks how. 3. Can a person’s religious beliefs be proven wrong? Can a person’s understanding...
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