Modernism In LiteraturePresentation Transcript
* 1. Modernism in literature An overwiew of early 20th century literary trends * 2. Definition Modernism is a literary and cultural international movement which flourished in the first decades of the 20th century. Modernism is not a term to which a single meaning can be ascribed . It may be applied both to the content and to the form of a work, or to either in isolation. It reflects a sense of cultural crisis which was both exciting and disquieting , in that it opened up a whole new vista of human possibilities at the same time as putting into question any previously accepted means of grounding and evaluating new ideas. Modernism is marked by experimentation , particularly manipulation of form , and by the realization that knowledge is not absolute . * 3. A few dates 1909 First “Manifesto” of Italian Futurism 1910 Death of Edward VII Post-impressionist exhibition in London 1913 Russian Cubo-futurism English Verticism 1916-20 Dada 1912-17 Imagism Tradition and individual Talent by TS Eliot 1922 Ts. Eliot’s The Waste Land J. Joyce’s Ulysses Death of M.Proust * 4. Modernism as a movement Modernism as a movement can be recognized not only in literature but also in The sciences Philosophy Psychology Anthropology Painting Music Sculpture Architecture * 5. General Features Modernism was built on a sense of lost community and civilization and embodied a series of contradictions and paradoxes, embraced multiple features of modern sensibility Revolution and conservatism Loss of a sense of tradition lamented in an extreme form of reactionary conservatism celebrated as a means of liberation from the past Increasing dominance of technology condemned vehemently embraced as the flagship of progress * 6. Consequences Productive insecurity originated Aesthetics of experimentation Fragmentation Ambiguity Nihilism Variety of theories Diversity of practices * 7. Thematic features Intentional distortion of shapes Focus on form rather than meaning Breaking down of limitation of space and time Breakdown of social norms and cultural values Dislocation of meaning and sense from its normal context Valorisation of the despairing individual in the face of an unmanageable future Disillusionment Rejection of history and the substitution of a mythical past Need to reflect the complexity of modern urban life Importance of the unconscious mind Interest in the primitive and non-western cultures Impossibility of an absolute interpretation of reality Overwhelming technological changes * 8. Theoretical Background Marx and Darwin had unsettled men from their secure place at the centre of the human universe. Their theories threatened humanist self-confidence and caused a feeling of ideological uncertainty Marx had revealed men’s dependence on laws and structures outside their control and sometimes beyond their knowledge. Historical and material determinism. Darwin in his conception of evolution and heredity had situated humanity as the latest product of natural selection * 9. Influential thinkers Physicist Einstein on R elativit y (1905) Physicist Planck on Quantum Theory (1900) Philosopher Nietzsche on the Will of Power Philosopher Bergson on the Concept of Time Psychologist William James on Emotions and Inner Time Psychologist Freud on the Unconscious ( The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900) Psychologist Jung on Collective Unconscious Linguist De Saussure on Language Anthropologist Frazer on Primitive Cultures * 10. Max Plank (1858-1947) Considered the founder of quantum theory, and one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century, he discovered Quantum mechanics the study of the relationship between quanta and elementary particles regarded as the most fundamental framework we have for understanding and describing nature * 11. Albert Einstein ( 1879-1955) The Theory of General Relativity A metric theory of gravitation...
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