Roman Empire and Modern Islamic Indian

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history of architecture

History of Architecture
Arch. Kevin Espina

Introduction
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE What are the board exams like? 1. Memorization is necessary – you must remember many facts 2. Wide in Scope – from pre-historic to modern styles REFERENCES 1. Ching, Francis D.K., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture 2. Fletcher, Bannister, A History of Architecture 20th Ed.

3. Mercado, Jose L., The Architectural Reviewer Volume III: History & Theory of Architecture 4. Salvan, George S., Architectural Character & the History of Architecture 5. The Children‟s Atlas of World History 6. The World Atlas of Architecture

3. Repetitive – questions from previous exams are reused
4. History amounts to only around 10% of your total score

OUR METHOD OF STUDYING HISTORY: To try not to memorize… but to understand

DEFINITIONS History of Architecture • "It is a record of man's effort to build beautifully. It traces the origin, growth and decline of architectural styles which have prevailed lands and ages." Historic Styles of Architecture • "The particular method, the characteristics, manner of design which prevails at a certain place and time.“ Six Influences of Architecture • Geographical • Geological • Climatic • Religious • Social • Historical

history of architecture

History is not a list of facts… it is a story that can be retold over and over

Four Great Constructive Principles 1. Post & Lintel Construction 2. Arch & Vault Construction 3. Corbel or Cantilever Construction 4. Trussed Construction

Introduction
The Historical Timeline of Architecture

Egyptian

Byzantine

Pre-Historic NEAR EAST EGYPTIAN

Greek

Roman

Early Christian

Romanesque

Gothic

Renaissance

GREEK
ROMAN EARLY CHRISTIAN

history of architecture

PRE-HISTORIC

18th-19th C: Revival

20th C: Modern

Near East

Islamic

BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE GOTHIC

RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL 20TH C MODERN ISLAMIC INDIAN

Indian

Chinese & Japanese

CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

Pre-historic
The Historical Timeline of Architecture

Pre-Historic NEAR EAST EGYPTIAN

GREEK
ROMAN EARLY CHRISTIAN

BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE GOTHIC

RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL 20TH C MODERN ISLAMIC INDIAN

CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

history of architecture

PRE-HISTORIC

Pre-historic
• Humans spread from Africa into Southern Europe, Asia • Could not settle far north due to the cold climate • From Siberia by foot into North America • From Southeast Asia by boat into Australia

• Before 9000 BC, nomadic life of hunting & food gathering • By 9000 BC, farming and agriculture was practiced • Fertile soil and plentiful food • Animal domestication for work, milk, wool PRE-HISTORIC NEAR EAST EGYPTIAN

history of architecture

INFLUENCES

• People wanted to settle down, live in communities • First villages in the Middle East, South America, Central America, India and China

GREEK
ROMAN EARLY CHRISTIAN

BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE GOTHIC

HISTORY • Direct human ancestors evolved in Africa from 2.3 million years ago - Homo habilis, Homo erectus, homo sapiens, homo sapiens sapiens

RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL 20TH C MODERN ISLAMIC INDIAN

CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

• Some people needed not farm, so they spent time on other work - pot-making, metal-working, art and… architecture! • The success of the human race was largely due to the development of tools – made of stone, wood, bone RELIGION • No organized religion • The dead are treated with respect - burial rituals and monuments

Pre-historic
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER MATERIALS • Animal skins, wooden frames, animal bones CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM • Existing or excavated caves • Megalithic, most evident in France, England and Ireland EXAMPLES

NEAR EAST EGYPTIAN

GREEK
ROMAN EARLY CHRISTIAN

history of architecture

PRE-HISTORIC

MENHIR • A single, large upright monolith • Serves a religious purpose • Sometimes arranged in...
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