Read full document

Research Paper

  • By
  • April 2013
  • 4640 Words
  • 49 Views
Page 1 of 15
TERM PAPER
LEPTOSPIROSIS ANS WATER POLLUTION

NAME: NURUL AMIRA BT MAT JUSOH
MATRIC NO: FIS 1207-2682
DATE: 5th APRIL 2013
GROUP: 7B
INSTRUCTOR: MR MAHATHIR

LEPTOSPIROSIS IN MALAYSIA
INTRODUCTION
Leptospirosis is most common in tropical areas of the world. However, it is becoming increasingly widespread in urban areas that have low levels of sanitation, such as in poor areas of large cities in the developing world. Most cases of leptospirosis are sporadic (infrequent), although large outbreaks have been reported after flooding. Globally, it is estimated that 10 million people will get leptospirosis every year. It is difficult to estimate exactly how many people die from leptospirosis because many cases occur in parts of the developing world where causes of death are not routinely reported. In the coming years, it is anticipated that the number of cases of leptospirosis will continue to increase as a result of global warming and the expected increase in flooding. Some experts have estimated that the fatality rate from leptospirosis could be anywhere between 5 and 25%. Deaths from leptospirosis tend to be higher in countries where access to good quality healthcare is limited. In Malaysia, leptospirosis is an old disease as the very first case of human leptospirosis was discovered by Fletcher in the year 1925. This discovery indicated that leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia. Through the years, the number of cases continues to increase significantly from 2004 to 2010 with 263 cases and 20 deaths in the year of 2004, to 1976 cases and 69 deaths in the year 2010. Humid environment also favors the growth of pathogenic Spirochaetes. With tropical weather and flooding that occur frequently, Malaysians are always at risk of exposure to water and soil contamination with the urine of rats without being aware of this. This causes records of a high incidence of leptospirosis, especially after floods. Occupational targets like farm workers, campers,...