Research Instruments

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QUESTIONAIRE:
QUESTIONAIRE The most common instrument or tool of research for obtaining the data beyond the physical reach of the observer which, for ex. May be sent to human beings who are thousands of miles away or just around the corner.

Two Forms of Questionnaire :
Two Forms of Questionnaire Closed form / Closed-ended Open form / Open-ended

Closed-Ended Questions
The respondents are given a list of predetermined responses from which to choose their answer •The list of responses should include every possible response and the meaning of the responses should not overlap •An example of a close-ended survey question would be, "Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: 'I feel good about my work on the job.' Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, neither agree nor disagree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree?" •A Likert scale, which is used in the example above, is a commonly used set of responses for closed-ended questions •Closed-ended questions are usually preferred in survey research because of the ease of counting the frequency of each response

Open-Ended Questions
Survey respondents are asked to answer each question in their own words Responses are usually categorized into a smaller list of responses that can be counted by the study team for statistical analysis

Such questions usually begin with a how, what, when, where, and why (such as "What factors you take into account when buying a vehicle?" or "In your opinion, what is the reasonable price for this item?") and provide qualitative instead of quantitative information. Open ended questions are asked generally during exploratory research and where statistical validity is not a prime objective.

Guidelines in Using the Questionnaire:
Guidelines in Using the Questionnaire Clarity of language Singleness of purpose Relevant to the objective of the study Correct grammar

Principles to consider in constructing Questionnaire:

1. define or qualify terms that could easily be misinterpret

2. be careful in using descriptive adjectives and adverbs that have no agreed-upon meaning.

3. be careful of inadequate alternatives

4. beware of double negative.

5. avoid the double-barreled question

6. underline the word if you wish to indicate special emphasis

7. when asking for rating or comparisons a point of reference is necessary

8. avoid unwarranted assumptions

9. phrase questions so that they are appropriate for all respondents

10.design question that will give a complete answer

11. provide for the systematic qualification of response

12.consider the possibility of classifying the respondents yourself rather than having the respondents choose categories. Advantages:
Facilitates data gathering Is easy to test data for reliability and validity Is less time-consuming than interview and observation Preserves the anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents’ reactions and answers

Disadvantages:
Printing and mailing are costly Response rate maybe low Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers There is less chance to clarify ambiguous answer Respondents must be literate and with no physical handicaps Rate of retrieval can be low because retrieval itself is difficult

Interview:
It is in a sense of an oral questionnaire. Instead of writing the response, the interviewee gives the needed information orally and face-to-face. With a skillful interviewer, the interview is often superior to other data-gathering device. The purposes of interview are : - to verify information gathered from written sources - to clarify points of information - to update information and - to collect data.

Types of Interview:

Structured or standardized

Unstructured or unstandardized Telephone interview

RATING SCALE:

Involves qualitative description of a limited number of aspects of a thing or traits of a person. Forms of Rating Scale
Thurstone...
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