TROUBLES & CAUSES
Submitted to- Submitted by-
Mr Rajan Kareer Bharat Chhabria-10/314
Associate professor Bangar Tejas Jagdish-10/313
UCE, RTU, KOTA Ashish Agrawal-10/312
3rd year Mechanical
The steering of a four-wheeled vehicle is, as far as possible, arranged so that the front wheels will roll truely without any lateral slip. The front wheels are supported on front axle so that they can swing to the left or right for steering. This movement is produced by gearing and linkage between the steering wheel in front of the driver & the steering knuckle or wheel. The complete arrangement is called the steering system.
FUNCTION OF STEERING SYSTEM
The function of the steering system is to convert the rotary movement of the steering wheel into angular turn of the front wheel. Also to provide the directional stability to the vehicle when going straight & to provide perfect steering condition. The steering system also absorb a large part of the road shocks, thus preventing them from being transmitted to the driver. It also minimizes the tyre wear.
REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD STEERING SYSTEM
For the smooth performance of the system, the steering system of any vehicle should fulfil the following requirements- The steering mechanism should be accurate and easy to handle. It should multiply the turning effort applied on the steering wheel by the driver i.e. the effort required to steer should be minimum & must not be tiresome for driver. The mechanism should have the self-rightening effect so that when the driver release the steering wheel after negotiating the turn, the wheel should try to achieve straight ahead position. STEERING GEOMETRY
King pin inclination
Toe-in & Toe-out
CAMBER:- The angle between the centre line of the tyre & the vertical line when viewed from the front of the vehicle is known as camber. When the angle is outward, so that the wheels are farther apart at the bottom, the camber is positive. When the angle is inward, so that the wheels are closer together at the top then at the bottom, the camber is negative. Any amount of camber, positive or negative, tends to cause uneven or more tyre wear on one side than on the other side. Camber should not exceed 2˚.
KING PIN INCLINATION:- The angle between the vertical line and the centre of king pin, when viewed from the front of the vehicle is known as king pin inclination. The king pin inclination, in combination with caster, is used to provide directional stability in modern cars, by tending to return the wheels to the straight-ahead position after any turn. The king pin inclination in modern vehicles ranges from 7 to 8 degree. It must equal on both sides.
CASTER:- Caster is the angle between the King pin central axis & the Vertical. If the king pin central axis at the upper portion is tilted inwards from vertical it is known as positive caster angle and if it is tilted outwards (towards the bonnet) then it is negative caster angle. About 3 Degree of Caster gives good results. It helps in providing Directional stability & reducing Steering effort.
TOE-IN AND TOE-OUT:- Toe in is the amount by which the front wheels are set closer together at the front than at the rear when the vehicle is stationary while the reverse is the case in toe out . Toe-in initially provided generally does not exceed 3 mm.
Toe settings affect three major areas of performance: tire wear, straight-line stability and corner entry handling characteristics.
CORRECT STEERING CONDITION
When the vehicle takes a turn, the outer wheels move faster than the inner wheels. The four wheels must roll on the road so that there is a line contact between the road surface and tyres. This is essential to prevent tyre wear. While...