Shiya Economics ..In spite of the significance of agriculture in the Indian economy, per capital productivity in agriculture is less in comparison to the productivity in other sectors of the economy and agricultural productivity of other countries of the world.
Agricultural productivity has two aspects. Land productivity and labour productivity. The former implies the productivity of land per hectare or acre and the latter refers to the productivity per worker employed. Both land and labour productivity in Indian agriculture is extremely low.
Available agricultural statistics for pre-independence period shows that agricultural production rose marginally during this period as compared to growth of population. In the post-independence period, particularly after 1962, the previous stagnant agricultural scenario was reversed and the following changes have been observed:-
(i) There has been a steady increase in areas under cultivation.
(ii) There has been an increase in the intensity of cropping.
(iii) The production and productivity, particularly in case of wheat has increased significantly.
(iv) As a result of increase in areas under cultivation and increased productivity per hectare, total production of all crops recorded a rising trend and the role of seed fertilizer revolution in increasing agricultural productivity cannot be undermined. The wander-high yielding variety seeds along with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, assured irrigation facilities and better cultural practices have significantly increased the production of food crops, particularly wheat. But, the impact of this green revolution on paddy, pulses and cash crops is marginal. Hence, it is said: "The Green Revolution has been successful only in the wheat, producing belt in India (Punjab, Haryana and Western M.P.)."
In spite of increase in agricultural production, caused due to green revolution, the productivity of agriculture still remains low in comparison with other countries.
Why has Indian agriculture started a declining trend in food production? . Pratik Daga Geography ..Indian agriculture started declining trend in food production because of the following reasons:
(a) There is a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil seeds, etc.
(b) More and more cultivable lands have been converted into factories, residential area, which has reduced the area under cultivation.
(c) The productivity of land has also started to decline due to various new diseases inspite of many insecticides that have been used to control these crop diseases.
(d) Use of fertilizers and pesticides once showed good results, now they are responsible for degrading soils.
(e) Periodic scarcity of water has led to reduction in area under irrigation.
We can overcome the above problems in the following ways:
(a) The food production can be increased by using new agricultural techniques which are environmentally sustainable.
(b) By using biotechnology as a supplementary tool to modify different crops genetically to increase the yield per hectare.
(c) Genetically modified crops are more resistant to insects, pests and diseases.
(d) Genetically modified crops require less water compared to other crops.
Causes for Low Productivity of Indian Agriculture .
Shiya Economics ..
The causes for low productivity of Indian agriculture can be divided into 3 broad categories, namely, (1) General factors, (2) Institutional factors and (3) Technological factors.
1. General Factors
(a) Overcrowding in Agriculture:
The increasing pressure of population on land is an important demographic factor responsible for low yield in agriculture. The area of cultivated land per cultivator has declined from 0.43 hectare in 1901 to 0.23 hectare in 1981 despite an expansion of area under cultivation. Hence, agricultural sector has become...