Reality vs. Fantasy

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REALITY AND FANTASY

MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE

1.INTRODUCTION

o What is reality ( psychology, philosophy, literature)

o What is fantasy (psychology, literature ) 2.REALITY AND FANTASY IN LITERATURE

o Writers

o Characteristics

3.MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE

o Styles ( poetry, prose, drama )

o Writers ( work, life )

4. ANTHONY BURGESS AND JOHN FOWELS

o Contribution to literature

o Life and work

Modern English Literature

1……………………………..

1. INTRODUCTION

REALITY

[Plato believed that reality consists of archetypes, or forms, beyond human sensation, which are the models for all things that exist in human experience. The objects of such experience are examples, or imitations, of those forms. The philosopher tries to reason from the object experienced to the reality it imitates; the artist copies the experienced object, or uses it as a model for the work. Thus, the artist's work is an imitation of an imitation.]

R:[Aristotle also spoke of art as imitation, but not in the Platonic sense. One could imitate “things as they ought to be,” he wrote, and “art partly completes what nature cannot bring to a finish.” The artist separates the form from the matter of some objects of experience, such as the human body or a tree, and imposes that form on another matter, such as canvas or marble. Thus, imitation is not just copying an original model, nor is it devising a symbol for the original; rather, it is a particular representation of an aspect of things, and each work is an imitation of the universal whole.]

From real experience it has derived a literary curent named Realism.R:[Realism is a style or theory of literature in which familiar aspects of life are represented in a straightforward or plain manner.(+ school definition=characteristics)]

Realism , in art and literature, is an attempt to describe human behavior and surroundings or to represent figures and objects exactly as they act or appear in life. Attempts at realism have been made periodically throughout history in all the arts; the term is, however, generally restricted to a movement that began in the mid-19th century, in reaction to the highly subjective approach of romanticism. The difference between realism and naturalism is harder to define, however, and the two terms are often used interchangeably. The distinction lies in the fact that realism is concerned directly with what is absorbed by the senses; naturalism, a term more properly applied to literature, attempts to apply scientific theories to art.]

FANTASY

[ In psychiatry the meaning of Fantasy is given by the swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung. He makes a distinction between the personal unconscious, or the repressed feelings and thoughts developed during an individual's life, and the collective unconscious, or those inherited feelings, thoughts, and memories shared by all humanity. The collective unconscious, in Jung’s view, is made up of what he called “archetypes,” or primordial images. According to Jung, fantasy, next to religion, myths and fairy tales, is the symbolic manifestation of the experiences coresponding to these “archetypes”.

2…………………………………….

2 . REALITY AND FANTASY IN LITERATURE

R:[Realist literature is defined particularly as the fiction produced in Europe and the United States from about 1840 until the 1890s, when realism was superseded by naturalism. This form of realism began in France in the novels of Gustave Flaubert and the short stories of Guy de Maupassant. In Russia, realism was represented in the plays and short stories of Anton Chekhov. The novelist George Eliot introduced realism into English fiction; as she declared in Adam Bede...
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