Effects of Realistic Job Previews
The theory that Realistic Job Previews which have been widely discussed in academia and accepted by multiple organizations has been proved beneficial for candidates to make better decisions and to reduce subsequent dissatisfaction, even turnover rate. This outcome can be partly attributed to review articles by Wanous (1977). According to his review about organizational entry, “For varieties of organizations, during the process of recruitment of new employees, the application of realistic job previews has shown its powerful and sustainable meaning in reducing the turnover rate among new employees.”(p.615) But he also admitted that the reason why such effects occur was still unclear.
Even though it is difficult to find an obvious shortage of Realistic Job Previews Theory in its result in turnover rate declining, many scholars have conducted experiments for seeking the criteria and reason to assess the reliability of the theory including Wanous (1977), Reilly (1981), McEvoy & Cascio (1985). Among the prior researches and articles, the number of criteria used by them is different from four to six. And only the last one, McEvoy & Cascio is a meta-analysis, but the criteria which is accepted in this article is job survival/turnover, whereas more criteria is required. Previous reviews that are not using meta-analysis would be misleading since there are potential flaws in the methods used. On the basis of the level of statistical significance among studies, general statement is bound to be made, which sometimes leads to a report of the balance between significant and insignificant outcomes, for instance, the articles by Wanous in 1977 and 1980. And this procedure can sometimes result in false conclusions, but if the studies are treated in a same position, the overall conclusion is possible to be flawed. (Hedges & Olkin,1980)
In one review (Reilly et al, 1981), there is an improvement made by cumulating statistical significance in order to make an assessment on the effect of Realistic Job Previews in the field of job survival. Another method for improving the reliability of theory outcome is to average job survival rates for Realistic Job Previews versus control groups. According to the article by Reilly et al. (1981), the Realistic Job Previews made the job survival rate increase from 74.5% to 80.2%. These differences are basicly caused by different studies involved in each review. So it is necessary to develop a technique to address these problems caused by flawed methods, and that is meta-analysis.( Hunter, Schmidt,& Jackson, 1982)
Despite a lot of work on Realistic Job Previews, it may be an optimal form to fulfill the targets such as maximizing outcomes, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and performance as well as minimizing turnover rates. And here I have to point out that a same underlying assumption that the theories discussing effectiveness of Realistic Job Previews all shared, that is, the process and receipt of message is all conducted by applicants. In another word, for applicants being tested, the message being communicated to them has to be effectively internalized through a well-performed Realistic Job Previews System. But, this assumption leads to a new emerging problem unanswered concerning when and in what form the delivered message can be processed most effectively by applicants, which is important for them to have the experience in facing the changes in attitudes and expectations of the jobs. It is essential to understand the factors that have influence on the effect of Realistic Job Previews message for improvement in understanding of processes through which Realistic Job Previews work to affect the organizational outcomes. As we all know, for both sides: the prospective employee and those already within the organization the initial communication, the initial communication is always an annoying experience. Weitz (1956) has...
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