Marine Basic Safety Training has 4 courses in it these are PST, FPFF, EFA, and PSSR. PST or Personal Survival Techniques means methods and systems used or employed to establish directions for taking appropriate survival actions, depending on the equipment and rations available, the use of them, and the preparation knowledge skills and integrity of the person. The IMO model course for PST is 1.19 that contains 9 modules. In this course discuss about the emergency situations, evacuation, survival crafts and rescue boat, personal life-saving appliances, survival at sea and emergency radio equipment. In emergency situations we should be observant in what happen into our surroundings. Also we should know the muster station. We can be able know our duties and responsible during emergency and the signals for these emergencies just by looking at the muster list. The general alarm has seven short blasts and one long blast on the ships whistle followed by public address of the master/captain. In survival crafts and rescue boats there are different types of lifeboats these are open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed. There are types of liferafts also these are enclosed inflatable liferaft and rigid liferaft. In Personal Life-Saving Appliances we should know the things that can help us during emergencies. Example of things that can help us are lifejackets, lifebuoy, lifebuoy with self-igniting light, immersion suit, thermal protective aid (TPA) and pyrotechnics. There are kinds of pyrotechnics the rocket parachute flare usually this kind of flare can last long for 40 seconds, Hand flare can last long for 60 seconds, buoyant orange smoke signal gives off smoke for 3 minutes it can use only for day time only.
FPFF or Fire Prevention and Firefighting this course discuss mainly about Fire on how to prevent and extinguish it. The IMO model course for FPFF is 1.20 that contains 3 modules. Fire tetrahedron is a graphical having a four equal triangular side illustrating how chemical chain reaction interacts with fuel, heat and oxygen. The Tetrahedron mainly composes of Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, and Chain Reaction. The theories of fire firstly are, if any side of the fire triangle is missing, a fire cannot start. Second, if any side of the fire triangle is removed, the fire will go out. Lastly, if the chemical chain reaction is not broken the fire is keep going. In this course also discuss about the classes of fire. There are Four classes of fire Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D. In Class A fire are those things that are solid and remain ashes (e.i. paper, wooden table, woods, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use are water, foam and dry powder. In Class B fire are those that are liquid and gases cause of fire (e.i. oils, greases, tars, lacquers, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to use are CO2 and dry powder. In Class C fire are fires that involves electrical (e.i. television, computer, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use are CO2 and dry powder. Lastly Class D fire these are fires that involves metals (e.i. sodium, titanium, potassium, calcium carbide, etc) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use is dry chemical. We have to maintain readiness to respond to emergency situations involving fires. We should observe what kind of fire so that we should know what we are going to use to extinguish it. There are types of detector, these are smoke, flame and heat detector. There is a general operating procedure on how to operate the fire extinguisher we should follow the P-A-S-S. P – Pull the pin
A – Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire
S – Squeeze
S - Sweep the nozzle side to side.
When there is a fire we should know what to do we should follow the meaning of F-I-R-E.
F – Find
I – Inform/isolate
R – Restrict/report
E - Extinguish
EFA or Elementary First Aid...