Introduction: Till about thirty years back, the areas around our homes and offices used to be unpaved and the rain falling on these areas would percolate into the soil and remain there for being drawn through shallow open wells. With the proliferation of flat complexes, not only have these areas been paved and percolation of rainwater into the soil almost totally stopped, the quantity of water drawn from the soil below has increased manyfold. Consequently open wells and not - so - deep bore wells started drying up. The reason is that no sincere attmept is made to replenish the ground watertable with rainwater during the monsoon.
As individuals, groups and communities, let us all wake up before it is too late and not only understand what rainwater harvesting is all about but also implement measures to harvest rainwater in our houses and flat complexes and put it into the soil for our subsequent use. What is Rain water harvesting?
The principle of collecting and using precipitation from a catchments surface. An old technology is gaining popularity in a new way. Rain water harvesting is enjoying a renaissance of sorts in the world, but it traces its history to biblical times. Extensive rain water harvesting apparatus existed 4000 years ago in the Palestine and Greece. In ancient Rome, residences were built with individual cisterns and paved courtyards to capture rain water to augment water from city’s aqueducts. As early as the third millennium BC, farming communities in Baluchistan and Kutch impounded rain, water and used it for irrigation dams.
Why Rain water harvesting:
Rain water harvesting is essential because:-Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground water. Due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. As you read this guide, seriously consider conserving water by harvesting and managing this naturalresource by artificially recharging the system. The examples covering several dozen installations successfully operating in India constructed and maintained by CGWB, provide an excellent snapshot of current systems.
Rain water harvesting Techniques:
There are two main techniques of rain water harvestings.
← Storage of rainwater on surface for future use.
← Recharge to ground water.
Urbanisation effects on Ground water hydrology:
← Increase in water demand.
← More dependence on ground water use.
← Over exploitation of ground water.
← Increase in run-off, decline in well yields and fall in water levels. ← Reduction in open soil surface area.
← Reduction in infiltration and deterioration in water quality.
Methods of artificial recharge in urban areas:
← Water spreading.
← Recharge through pits,...
HISTORY OF GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT
Water is the main source for the development for all human beings, cattles, and industries. From the History of the Global system we learn that, in ancient days, perennial rivers became the major source of water, and the people, who were far away from the river sources, practiced the utilization of ground water and stored rain water for their sustenance. In India ground water utilization has been practiced for many centuries, in the form of open wells owned by private individuals or farmers or communities, for both domestic and irrigation purposes. Well irrigation has been in practice for several centuries. To meet shortage of tank/canal waters, cultivators made conjunctive use of ground water through wells. But there was no specific planning behind this, because each source was developed without due consideration of the other.
Efficient planning and management of water sources, for irrigation/industrial and other uses, is an important aspect for the development of any system. Recognition of the fact that ground water and...